AP bio chapt 9 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in AP bio chapt 9 Deck (62):
1

DNA and its role in heredity: Needed to show the three following...

DNA

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Evidence: DNA in the Nucleus

Nuclein; Precipitation of DNA from White blood cell (WBC)

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In 1868, Miescher:

Was extracting DNA from puss in wounds

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Evidence: Doubles in the cell cycle

Flow Cytometry

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Evidence: Twice as much in diploid cells

Further flow cytometry

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Evidence: DNA is transmitted

#NAME?

7

Bacteriophage:

Virus that attacks bacteria

8

Elucidating the structure of DNA: Why so key to know DNA structure? 2 important q's:

1. How is DNA replicated between cell division

9

Elucidating the structure of DNA: Crucial piece of evidence...

Crucial piece of evidence came from x-ray diffraction. Roseland Franklin

10

#NAME?

Found: 2/28/1953

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Double Helix: 4 key features:

1. Double stranded.

12

Chargaff's Rule

DNA from many species exhibited the certain regularities.

13

Structure Confers Function: 4

1. Storage of genetic information

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Structure confers function: 1. Storage of genetic information

We are looking at the nucleotide sequence: summarize by saying "Variations = differences"

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Structure confers function: 2. Precise replication during cell division

complementary base pairing. This was huge as we now have a way of copying

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Structure confers function: 3. Susceptibility to mutations

Change in sequence

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Structure confers function: 4. Expression of coded information as phenotypes

DNA --> RNA --> Proteins

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DNA replication is semiconservative:

They realized there must be a copying mechanism. Each parental strand is a template.

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DNA replication is semiconservative: 2 general steps:

1. DNA unwound

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DNA replication is semiconservative: Ways to read the DNA.

The parent strand is read in a 3' to 5' manner. Nucleotides are added 5' to 3' direction.

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Nucleotides added to new strand of DNA on 3' end:

DYKNOW NOV 9 slide 5 look up and understand

22

Origin of Replication

- Many ORi's: 10,000-40,000 bases

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DNA Replication and Primase: A ___ ___ is needed

Starter Strand is needed: primer

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DNA Replication and Primase: Most of time is:

RNA

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DNA Replication and Primase: _____ to template DNA

Complementary

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DNA Replication and Primase: Enzyme used called _______: definition

Primase: Able to add RNA nucleotides to the enzymatic strand to our replication complex getting started

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DNA Replication and Primase: Primer of RNA is eventually ______ and the whole strand is ____

degraded; DNA

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DNA Replication and Primase: _____ ______ catalyzes the addition of nucleotides to the growing strand

DNA Polymerase

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DNA Polymerase:

15 ID'd DNA polymerase in humans

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DNA Replication - Strand

Function is to replace the primer.

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DNA Replication: Each ____ ____ requires...

Each Okazaki Fragment requires its own primer, synthesized by the primase.

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DNA Replication: ____ ____ adds nucleotides to the...

DNA polymerase adds nucleotieds to the 3' end until reaching the primer of the previous fragment.

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DNA Replication: A _____ ___ ______ then ______ ____ _____ with DNA.

A different DNA polymerase then replaces the primer with DNA.

34

DNA Replication: The Final ________ linkage between fragments...

The Final phosphodiester linkage between fragments is catalzyed by DNA ligase.

35

The Terminal Primer: Okazaki fragments are

Okazaki fragments are added to RNA primers to replicate the lagging strand

36

The Terminal Primer: When the last primer is removed...

When the last primer is removed no DNA synthesis occurs because there is no 3' end to extend -- a single-stranded bit of DNA is left at each end.

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The terminal primer: These are cut after...

These are cut after replication and the chromosome is slightly shortened after each cell division

38

Telomeres

The area that gets chopped off at the end of cell division put a cap on the end to stabilize

39

Telomerase:

The little lights at the end of the chromosome are called telomeres. They are highly repetitive.

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The older we get the shorter our _____ get.

telomerase

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Can add an RNA template with ______

telomerase.

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Telomeres: Facts

#NAME?

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Telomerase: Facts

#NAME?

44

PCR -Polymerase Chain Reaction: Materials needed:

#NAME?

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PCR Figure 9: 15

...

46

DNA Repair Mechanisms

Two flavors of this. The top one is occurring while replication is taking place.

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Genetic mutations: Somatic

All but germ line DNA

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Genetic Mutations: Germline

Germline DNA

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Mutations can occur in:

Either coding or non-coding regions.

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Point Mutations

One nucleotide is different/single nucleotide change

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Point Mutations: list:

Silent

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Point mutations: silent

Silent: No effect

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Point mutations: Loss of function

loss of function of either the gene, or protein, or mRNA is non-functional

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Point mutations: Gain-of-Function

when you have a single nucleotide change, the mutation causes new protein function. If dominant inheritance; "always on"

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Point mutations: Conditional

Restrictive - mutant phenotype being expressed

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Point mutations: slide 12 dyknow nov 12

...

57

Chromosomal mutations:

affect many many genes. Multiple changes

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Chromosomal mutations: Deletion

Removal of a chromosome segment.

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Chromosomal mutations: Duplication

when we have homologous chromosome break and swap DNA incorrectly.

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Chromosomal mutations: Inversion

reversed order

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Chromosomal mutations: Translocation

Non-homologous chromosomes exchange segments.

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Chromosomal mutations: slide 14 dyknow nov 12

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