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A community of people who share a common sense identity


Foreign policy

Is the articulation of national interest (the goals of nation-state) and the means chosen to secure those interests, both material and ideational in the international arena.
- Aims to secure a country's national interests and promote its values


Material interests

The physical goals of state officials as they set foreign and domestic policy



Is the idea that the world is divided into nations which provide the overriding focus of political identity and loyalty that in turn demands national self-determination
- Nationalism can shape foreign policy as a sentiment and political ideology


Hard power

The material threats and inducements leaders employ to achieve the goals of their state


Soft Power

The influence and authority derived from the attraction that a country's political, social, and economic beliefs and practises have for people in other countries


Soft power is based off of what 3 sources?

-culture, if the country's culture is attractive to others, it can be a source of power
- political view, if the country's political values like democracy and respect is attractive to other citizens and states, the country can gain power influence the international system
- the country's foreign policy, a country with moral foreign policy can also have power and influence the international system


Foreign policy pursues:

Security: the survival of the society, maintaining independence and protecting territory
Economics: economic well-being and market stability
Prestige: status, image and level of respect and trust
Values: making the world like you
Territorial expansion: increasing power/resources
Peace & security: playing a role in maintaining world order and being a rule maker


What are the types of states the world can be divided into?

Premodern, postmodern, and modern


Premodern States:

Individuals are more loyal to sub citizens of these very weak states which are referred to as collapsed/fragile states
Eg.) Afghanistan, Zimbabwe and North Korea
- These states lack control over their own territory and have unstable and ineffective governments


Modern States:

are traditional nation-states with control over their own territory and can protect their citizens and provide the services they need to accumulate wealth
Eg.0 China, India and Brazil
- Their foreign policies tend to focus on economic interests and the desire to become a major power within their regions.
-Nationalism tends to be very high


Postmodern states

Include states that make up the liberal Western world such as the U.S. and European states
- These states are linked with other states in both formal and informal arrangements at regional and global levels
- These states are busy building regional and global regimes to deal with the security challenges presented by modern and premodern states


Who makes foreign policy?

Members of the executive brand or the prime minister's cabinet are the ones who initiate foreign policy and they world through the legislature and parliament to formulate the policy
- Gov. agencies will work with the private sector or other governments to implement policy decisions
- Both private and public actors may shape foreign policy
- NGO's can have a profound influence on public officials whom make foreign policy decisions


What do we expect from foreign policy?

Internal security, law and order, and a stable market place


Foreign policy analysis stages:

- initiation/articulation
- the formulation of foreign policy
- foreign policy implementation
- foreign policy evaluation



- issues are articulated and promoted by the media and interest groups who are attempting to influence the policy making process
- As technology is advancing, citizens in industrialized states can be better informed and be actively involved in certain areas


The formulation of foreign policy

- Involves the creation of an official government policy
- Internal/external actors, individuals, and foreign governments initiate policy debates and put pressure on policy makers to act
- Then parliaments, executive offices and ministries have to work and develop an effective foreign policy


Foreign policy initiation

When a policy is decided, it is usually assigned to policy actors in a ministry or department who are expected to implement the policy


Foreign policy evaluation

This is the final step in the policy making process which is either neglected or overlooked



refers to an alliance of multiple countries pursuing a common goal.


Domestic law

Has clear lines of authority


International law

has no clear line of authority



Are political entities governing a defined territory


What is anarchy?

The literal absence of law/a government


Levels of analysis

- State
- System
- Individual
- Sub-state