Flashcards in Chapter 4 Addition To Metabolism Deck (30):
Cellular Metabolism is what type of pathway?
What pathways are involved
Glycolysis and the Lactic Acid Pathway
Metabolism of lipids and proteins
Metabolism refers to the reactions in the body that involve energy transformations
What are the two categories that metabolism is broken down to?
Catabolism - breaks down Molecules to release energy. (Exergonic)
Anabolism - synthesizes large molecules and requires energy (Endergonic)
What is the energy source that transfers free energy to drive reactions?
What does the brain use primarily as an energy source?
What does the skeletal muscles primarily use as an energy source?
What does the liver primarily use as an energy source?
What does the heart primarily use as an energy source?
Where are the two areas that glucose comes from?
The liver after glycogen is broken down and from eating a meal
ATP is generated by two mechanisms, what are they?
After absorption, glucose is catabolized and enters glycolysis (Anaerobic)
The second mechanism is Kreb's cycle/TCA cycle (aerobic)
What are the four steps of the metabolism of glucose
Conversion of Pyruvic Acid
Citric Acid Cycle
Electron Transport Chain
Where does glycolysis take place, and how many ATP does it yield?
Where does the TCA/Krebs cycle take place and how many ATP does it produce?
What does Glycolysis mean?
Breaking of Glucose
During glycolysis what is the end result?
1 glucose. 2 pyruvic acids (3 carbon molecules)
2 ATP. 4 ATP
2NAD+. 2 NADH
What acid is the branch point from glucose to citric acid cycle
2 pyruvic acids is the branch point from anaerobic to aerobic metabolism
In glycolysis if metabolism were to continue in the absence of O2, NAH+ must be regenerated to allow glycolysis, what need to be formed?
Pyruvate is converted to what before proceeding into the TCA cycle?
What has to be present for this to take place?
Acetyl-CoA, which only happens in the presence of O2
What is the purpose of Acetyl-CoA? What must it do to complete the cycle?
Acetyl-CoA must combine with oxaloacetic acid to form citric acid
In a series of reactions, citric acid is converted back to oxaloacetic acid to complete the cycle.
What comes out of the TCA cycle?
1 Acetyl-CoA. 2 CO2
1FAD. 1 FADH2
3 NAD+. 3 NADH2
1 ADP. 1 ATP
How are protons pumped into the intermembrane space?
The enzymes that are within the inner membrane undergo oxidation-reduction reactions
Protons from NADH and FADH2 and electrons are passed from the TCA Cycle to the 3 complexes were the e- continues from the 1st complex to Q and so on until it reaches the 3rd complex
As NADH and FADH2 continue oxidize and protons are passed through the complexes a proton gradient is formed in the inter membrane. The H+ will then travel to ATP synthase where the ADP + Pi are converted to ATP this is oxidative phosphorylation
What is the final electron acceptor in the ETC? What does this create in regard to the protons? (H+)
This forms concentration gradient for H+
The released energy facilities ATP synthesis
What are the two ways that ATP can be made?
Direct (substrate-level) phosphorylation
How many ATP is generated during Direct (substrate-level) phosphorylation?
2 during glycolysis
2 during citric acid cycle
How many ATP are generated during Oxidative Phosphorylation?
ATP is generated by the mitochondria
26-28 net ATP's
The break down of glucose to 2 molecules of pyruvic acid
The formation of glycogen, mostly stored in skeletal muscle and in the liver
hydrolysis of glycogen, which yields glucose-6-phosphate for glycolysis which happens in the liver, or free glucose that can be secreted into the blood.
The production of glucose from non carbohydrate molecules, including lactic acid and amino acids
Primarily takes place in the liver
Formation of triglycerides
Primarily in Adipose tissue
Hydrolysis of triglycerides
Primarily in adipose tissue
Where does this take place
Formation of ketone bodies, which are four-carbon-long organic acids.
These are from fatty acids
This takes place in the liver