Flashcards in Chapter 4: How Did Beliefs, Values, And Knowledge Shape The Worldview In Japan Between 1600 And 1900 Deck (40):
Describe the Meiji Period in 2 words and what year did it begin?
Rapidly modernization and adaptation, it began the year of 1868.
Describe the geography of Japan.
Composed of long, narrow series of island along Eastern Pacific coast of Asia, 73% is mountains, little flat areas so farming is done in valleys-coastlines-hills/mountains. Situated on Volcanic Zone/Ring of Fire
Describe the Edo period in 2 words and what year did it begin?
Isolation and peace in Japan, it began the year of 1603
What are the 4 main islands of Japan?
Hokkaido, Hanshu, Shikoku, Kyushu
How was the beginning of the Edo period like?
All under emperor rule but each region under rule of Daimyo,
Daimyo were at war with each other trying to increase holding/power.
What's the difference between the Emperor and Shogun?
Emperor was more symbolic while the Shoguns were the ones truly in charge since they were in charge of Military government.
What 3 Shoguns get credit for unifying/isolating Japan.
Oda Nobunaha, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Tokugawa Ieyasu.
Who is Oda Nobunga?
Gained control of 1-3rd of the provinces, reduced influence of Buddhist control of politics, built series of castles to defend his land, introduced new administrative practices to unify Japan.
Who is Toyotom Hideyoshi?
- Called Monkey Face
- continued centralizing government power
- surveyed country and changed tax from money to quantities of rice
- created a society based on formal class structure
- created a standing army
- disarmed farmers creating law that you have to choose between farmer or warrior
- try to expand his territory by attacking Korea and China but failed
- supportive painters and new types of drama.
Who is Tokugawa Ieyasu?
He officially United Japan, He establishes government based in EDO and finalize the unification of Japan.
What did Japanese name percent?
Japanese names for scented the surnames or family names first.
How did for foreign influence Japan to isolate itself from much of the world?
- At the beginning it traded a lot, soon ships from Europe and started to arrive in Japan
- Tokugawa didn't want people exposed Europeans
- he became worried since he saw them colonize a lot
- therefore he only allow their ships at 1 port which was the island of Deshima Nagasaki bay
- tobacco became popular in Japan because of Europeans.
How was the spread of Christianity an influence on Japan isolating itself?
Shogun Hideyoshi ordered all the missionaries to leave and then kill 26
- death of Ieyasu made Bakufu more worried about Christianity(especially concerned of Christian Daimyo)
- they worried that people would follow more spiritual leaders instead of shogun
- fearing loss of power shogun isolated Japan and introduce a series of edicts.
What was the National Seclusion Policy?
- Bakufu passed series of edicts to control influence of foreigners and tighten control of Daimyo
- Policy was an effort for Bakufu to strengthen its authority and maintain a strong centralized government
What did the National Seclusion Policy state?
- Japanese ships not allowed to travel to foreign countries
- no Japanese allowed to go abroad (if so you will be executed)
- if any Japanese returns from overseas after living there they must die
- no single trading city shall be permitted go purchase merchandise brought back from the outside
- Portuguese ships banned for Japanese ports.
What were the 2 and a half religions in Japan?
Confucian, Buddhism, Shinto
What is Confucian?
- Emphasizes the relationship between human beings not an idea of God
- believes the past is important
- stressed objective reasoning as the basis of learning.
What was the influence of confusion believes and values?
- Tokugawa shoguns roads in caring manner in return people were loyal and carried out jobs in a good way
- importance of past and long-held traditions were recorded by many writers
- confusion ideas messed with Buddhism
- Shinto religion introduced with emphasized importance of ancestors
- schools were set up to follow a form of studying based on observation and questioning.
How did the political system work during the Edo period?
- Provinces were governed by Daimyo
– Daimyo had control over his land and those living in it
- two levels of government: Han[Local government in each domain] + Bakufu (higher level controlled by shogun)
- Daimyo where split into three levels; 1. most loyal, 2. nobles, 3. from Tokugawa family, 4. and those who not have much power
What did the Bakufu do to the Daimyo?
– they made rules for the Daimyo to follow so they would stay in line.
What were the laws that the Bukufu made the Daimyo follow?
- there will be no unnecessary contact between neighbouring Daimyo
- only 1 possible castle in a domain
- Daimyo must support public building projects
- Daimyo required to spend every 2nd year in Edo
- All commanders must register at Buddhist Temples
- marriages of Daimyo must be approved by the Bakufu
- travel and shipbuilding were restricted
What did the the ranking of the Daimyo affect?
Where his location is and what is his size of residence
What was the order of the social systems? (From most power to least)
1. Emperor (More symbolic role)
2. Shogun (the men in charge of government)
3. Samurai (men who were in Hereditary warriors some Damyo)
7. Outcasts/Eta (worked with dead things)
8. Non-Humans (peoples who survived by acting/begging)
Describe the Samurai role during beginning of isolation.
- held most prestigious position in society
- their code of behaviour was called bushido (way of warrior)
- Bushido said to be models of cultural, moral, intellectual development
- most lived in castle but when too many they were allowed in surrounding countryside
- they practiced belief," it is better to be known for your accomplishments than for your rank"
- originally warriors but no longer needed with peace
- called upon to be administrative functions for domain
- Bakufu removed their names of leaders from court lists
- first to become literate
Describe the farmers role in society.
- Responsible for production of rice
- not allowed to leave their lands and villages
- strict rules on how to dress
- 2 types of farmers:
- main farmer (honbyakusho) own some land/stuff
- ordinary farmer (hyahusho) owned nothing
How did Communities Change during Isolation?
- Merchants and Artisans helped travellers
- with higher larger populations in more centres, economy changed
- cities could not be self sufficient
- castle towns grew rapidly fast
What are Japan's 3 Metropolises during Edo period?
- Edo (large city + government centre)
- Osaka (was a larger commercial centre)
- Kyoto (Ancient capital of Japan and imperial palace where emperor lived)
What was the city Edo like during the Edo Period?
- Tokugawa chose this site so easy trade sea with Kyoto and Osaka
- City of water
- centre of shogun's military government
- since big population new laws for control
- merchants increase to develop big businesses
- Bakufu learn to deal with providing services
- since houses so close and made of wood, fire is really a threat
- houses heated/cooked with coal/burning wood/or oil
What was the city Kyoto like during the Edo period?
- Capital of Japan before Edo
- easy river access to the sea and land routes through mountains
- surrounded by mountains
- summers got
- known for refinement and production of luxury items
- merchant class became wealthy and less emphasis on class and status
- centre of publishing, woodblock printing, maps
What was the city of Osaka like during the Edo period?
- around very protected harbour
- centre of economy
- famous for castle, Buddhist temple, bridges
- wonderful markets names," Kitche of Japan'
- Areas of good farmland
- Daimyo transported their surplus rice to sell here
- eventually, the standard price of rice for all Japan was set here
How did the popular culture of Japan change during isolation?
- more people desired luxury items and had time for entertainment
- Daimyo become patron of arts to get beautiful things
- Daimyo started to provide education for Samurai
- soon Samurai began to be known more for accomplishments
- Daimyo could, no longer have armies to show power so they built their castles
- interiors of castles were opulent
What is the Kabuki Theatre?
- Very popular with people of all classes but mainly merchant class
- plays = mirror of Japanese life and focused on domestic drama
- first Kabuki performed by a women named Okini
- Bakufu banned females from stage so en play all roles
What is the Banraku Theatre?
- puppet plays for adults
- non-humans performed
- first group of puppeteers named Banraku
What is the Geishas?
- women in entertainment trained as Geishas
- trained in dancing, singing, witty conversations
- expected to show correct forms of etiquette
- appearance and behaviour reflected cultural values
What are woodblock images?
- prints of original paintings
- carved into flat wood
- famous ones reflected scenes of nature and lives of commoners
- at first not known as actual paintings
How did books work during the Edo period?
- first popular in Kyoto
- woodblocks used since easier for their characters
- blocks also made possible to illustrate with print
- printing private not controlled by Bakufu
- but some subjects not allowed such as :
- no Christianity
- no political nature
- nothing that can be offensive
- Romantic novels were especially popular
- hand books too
What did literature develop and who was really into literature?
- Haiku developed
- Samurai was very into this
Who is Basho Matsu? What did he do?
- Created Hiku
- 5 syllables, 7 syllables, 5 syllables
- usually of nature
- Japanese gardens designed to reflect ideas of simplicity and serenity
How did the lives of the Samurai change during Isolation?
- Before Edo they protecters
- Part of ruling class
- They and sons were educated
- Did not do Manuel work or engage in business
- Only they could carry swords
- Expected to live by Bushido code
- Once wars stopped they were educated so they could be administrators and warriors
- ways of Samurai:
- masters of emotion
- master of conflict with or without the sword
- master of unarmed defence