The transfer of traits from one generation to another generation.
The father of modern genetics; discovered the basic principals of heredity through experiments with pea plants
Characteristics or features of one organism that are inherited (passed from parent to offspring)
Inherited traits examples in humans
freckles, hair color, dimples
Inherited traits examples in animals
eye/hair color, hair texture, face shape
Inherited traits examples in plants
leaf shape, plant height, flower color
Traits that hide other traits when passed on to offspring; shows its specific trait, even if only one parent passes the gene; when child inherits dominant brown hair gene the child will have brown hair.
Traits that get hidden by dominant traits; shows its specific trait when both parents pass the gene to offspring; when child inherits recessive blue eye gene from both parents the child will have blue eyes.
How traits are passed
When organisms reproduce, traits are passed from parent to offspring; it all begins in the organism’s cells; cells are the basic building blocks of all living things; cells contain the body’s hereditary material and can make copies of themselves.
Small egg-shaped structure inside the cell; acts like the brain of the cell; it contains chromosomes and genes; stores the cells hereditary material or DNA.
Thread-like structures found in the nucleus of a cell that contains all DNA; Each chromosome is made of protein and a single molecule of DNA; comes in sets of two (or pairs); human cell nucleus contains 46 chromosomes or 23 pairs; half of these chromosomes come from one parent and half come from the other parent.
Molecule that carries the genetic instructions for all living organisms; short for deoxyribonucleic acid; contains the specific instructions that make each type of living creature unique; determines how the cells in a body function
Determine traits; a stretch of DNA on a chromosome with instructions for one trait; chromosomes come in pairs; each parent has two copies of each gene; each parent passes along one copy to make up the genes of the offspring; cell contains the nucleus; nucleus contains the chromosomes; chromosomes contains all the DNA; DNA contains the genes
Not passed down to offspring genetically; is a learned trait; is a product of the environment’s influence on the organism