Chapter 4 Part 1 Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Chapter 4 Part 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 4 Part 1 Deck (70):
1

Define Cells

Work together in functionally related groups called tissues

2

Define Tissue

Group of closely associated cells that perform related functions and are similar in structure

3

What are the components of tissues?

Cells and extracellular matrix

4

What makes up the extracellular matrix?

Ground substance and fibers

5

Describe collagenous fibers

Keeps the tissue from tearing, produces tensile, flexible strength

6

Describe Reticular fibers

Forms a storm or framework of an organ

7

Describe elastic fibers

Stretch and recoil to normal shape

8

Describe epithelial tissue

Covers a body surface or lines a body cavity, forms most glands

9

How are tissues distinguished?

By the type of cells, distribution of cells, components and distribution/amount of extracellular matrix

10

Name the 6 functions of epithelial cells

Protection, secretion, absorption, diffusion, filtration, sensory reception

11

What are 6 special characteristics of epithelia?

Cellularity, specialized contacts, polarity, support by connective tissue, avascular but innervated, regeneration

12

Describe innervated

Allows sensory receptors to send messages to the brain

13

Where does the epithelia receive nutrients?

From underlying connective tissues

14

What binds epithelial cells together?

Adhesion proteins, contours of adjacent membranes, and cell junctions

15

Describe tight junctions

Found at apical region of epithelial tissues, close off intercellular space and prevents fluids from leaking between cells

16

Describe adhesive belt junctions

Anchoring junction that holds the cell together and supports tight junctions

17

Describe transmembrane linker proteins

Attach to actin microfilaments of the cytoskeleton and bind adjacent cells, around apical lateral boarders or tissues

18

Describe desmosomes

Main junctions for binding cells together, scattered along abutting sides of adjacent cells. Filaments extend across cytoplasm to anchor at desmosomes on opposite sides

19

Where are desmosome common?

Cardiac muscle and epithelial tissues, wherever there is a lot of friction

20

Describe gap junctions

A passageway between two cells connected by hollow cylinders of protein that let small molecules move

21

Where are gap junctions common?

Embryonic tissue, cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, connective tissue

22

Describe a connexon

Allows communication and transportation, formed by proteins, found on a gap junction

23

Describe the basal lamina

Located at the boarder of epithelium and connective tissue, consists of proteins secreted by epithelial cells

24

What are the components of the basement membrane?

Reticular lamina and basal lamina

25

What is the function of the Basal Lamina?

Acts as a selective filter and a scaffolding allowing migration of regenerated epithelial tissue cells

26

What are two features of the apical surface?

Cilia and microvilli

27

Describe microvilli

Fingerlike extensions of plasma membrane with a core of actin filaments that stiffen it. Maximizes surface area so molecules can enter or leave

28

Where are microvilli found?

Kidney tubules, small intestine, mucus secreting epithelium

29

Describe cili

Whiplike, highly motile extensions of apical surface membranes that generate movement. Contain a core of microtubules held together by cross linking and radial proteins

30

Describe dynein

Motor protein used to grip doublets and propel movement in cilia

31

Simple epithelia

Single layer of cells attached to basement membrane

32

Stratified epithelia

Multiple layers of cells, basal layer is attached to basement membrane

33

Squamous

Cells wider than tall, nucleus sits higher than cell

34

Cuboidal

Cells are as wide as they are tall, circular and centered nucleus

35

Columnar

Cells are taller than they are wide, nucleus is towards the bottom

36

How are cells named?

Based on the apical surface

37

Function of simple squamous epithelial

Diffusion and filtration

38

Function of stratified squamous epithelial

Protection

39

Function of simple cuboidal/columnar

secretion and absorption; ciliated types propel mucus or reproductive cells

40

Function of stratified cuboidal/columnar

Protection; very rare

41

Function of transitional epithelial

Protection; stretching to accommodate dissension of urinary structures

42

Where are simple squamous epithelium found?

Kidney glomeruli, air sacs of lungs, lining of heart, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, serosae, lining of capillaries

43

Where are simple cuboidal epithelium found?

Kidney tubules, ducts, secretary portions of small glands, ovary surface

44

Where are simple columnar epithelium found?

Nonciliated lines the digestive tract and gallbladder, ciliated lines the small bronchi, uterine tubes, and parts of uterus

45

Function of cilia

Move things quickly across the cell surface

46

Function of microvilli

Increase surface area of cell

47

What kind of tissue can goblet cells be found in?

Simple columnar and pseuodstratified epithelia

48

Where can pseudostratified columnar epithelium be found?

Sperm carrying ducts, trachea, upper respiratory tract

49

What is the major role of stratified epithelia?

Protection

50

How is stratified epithelia named?

After its apical layer

51

What is the thickest epithelial tissue?

Stratified squamous

52

Where can keratinized epithelium be found?

Epidermis

53

Where can nonkeratinized epithelium be found?

Moist lining of body openings

54

Function of stratified squamous epithelia?

Protects underlying tissues that are subject o abrasion

55

Where is stratified cuboidal epithelia found?

Sweat glands, mammary glands, salivary glands

56

Where is stratified columnar epithelium found?

Very rare, in male urethra and large ducts of some glands

57

Function of transitional epithelia

Stretches and permits dissension of urinary organ

58

Where is transitional epithelia found?

lines ureters, bladder, part of urethra

59

Define endocrine glands

Ductless glands that secrete directly into surrounding tissue fluid, secrete hormones

60

Define exocrine glands

Ducts carry products of this gland to epithelial surface, includes: mucus secreting, sweat and oil, salivary, and liver/pancreas glands

61

What is a goblet cell?

Unicellular exocrine gland that produces mucin, protects and lubricates internal body surfaces

62

What is mucus made of?

Mucin and water

63

What are multicellular exocrine glands?

Two parts: epithelium walled duct for transportation and secretory unit that secretes, classified by structure and secretory unit

64

Alveolar shape

Tear drop

65

Simple tubular example

intestinal glands

66

Simple branched tubular example

Stomach glands

67

Compound tubular example

Duodenal glands

68

Simple branched alveolar example

Sebaceous gland (Oil)

69

Compound alveolar example

Mammary glands

70

Compound tubuloalveolar example

Salivary gland