Chapter 4 Performance and Limitations Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Performance and Limitations Deck (38):
1

Vno

Normal operating speed

2

Moment

Product o the weight of an item multiplied by an arm. Expressed in lb/in

3

Basic equations to find center of gravity

WeightxArm = Moment
Moment/Arm = Weight
Arm(CG) = Total Moment/Total Weight

4

Vfe

Max flap extension speed

5

Increase in density effect takeoff and landing

A. Increased takeoff distance (greater TAS)
B. Reduced rate of climb(decreased thrust and reduced acceleration)
C.increased true airspeed on approach and landing
D. Increased landing roll distance

6

Pressure alt

Alt. Indicated when altimeter setting window is adjusted to 29.92. Alt above the standard datum plane

7

Air density affect aircraft performance

A. Lift produced by the wings
B. Power output of the engine
C. Propeller efficiency
D. Drag forces

8

Center of Gravity

The point about which an aircraft would balance if it were possible to suspend it at that point. Expressed in inches from datura

9

What factors affect air density

Alt.—>the higher the less dense the air
Temp.—> the warmer the air, the less dense
Humidity —> more humid air is less dense

10

Vy

Best rate of climb speed

11

Vx

Best angle of climb speed

12

Arm

Horizontal distance in inches from the reference datum line to the center of gravity of the item

13

Gross Weight

Max allowable weight of both the plane and it contents

14

When are spins most likely to occur

A) engine failure on takeoff during climb out-
B)crossed-control turn from base to final(slipping or skidding turn)
C)engine failure on approach to landing
D)Go-around with full nose trim-up
E)Go-around with improper flap retraction

15

Vsi

Stall speed clean or in specified config

16

Empty Weight

Weight of the airframe, engines, all permanently installed equipment, and unusually fuel. Depending on the FARs under which was certified, undrainable oil or full reservoir of oil is included

17

Weight affect takeoff and landing

A. Higher liftoff speed
B. Greater mass to accelerate(slow acceleration)
C. Increased retarding force(drag and ground friction)
D. Longer takeoff distance

18

Datum

An imaginary vertical plane or line form which all measurements of arm are taken. Established by manufacture

19

Vne

Never exceed speed

20

Vle

Max landing gear extension speed

21

Recover From Spin

Power-reduce to idle
Ailerons-position to neutral
Rudder-apply full opposite against rotation
Elevator-apply positive, forwarded of neutral, movement to break stall

22

Load Factor

Ratio of the total load supported by the airplane wing to the actual weight of the airplane and its contents. Actual load supported by the wings divided by the total weight of plane. Ex: weight of plane is equal to 1G and if load of 3x the actual weight of plane imposed upon the wing the load factor is equal to 3G

23

Forward center of Gravity

Higher stall speed
Slower cruise speed
More stable
Greater back elevator pressure required

24

2 reasons load factor is important

A) dangerous overload
B) increase load factor increases the stalling speed and makes stalls possible at seemingly safe flight speeds

25

Adverse Yaw

When turning the opposite wing that is raised causes more drag and lift attempting to pull the nose towards the lifted wing, the undesired direction.

26

Centrifugal force

The equal and opposite reaction of the airplane to the change in direction, and it acts equal and opposite the horizontal component lift

27

Useful load

Weight of pilot, and anyone else on board, useable fuel and drainable oil

28

What factors affect performance during takeoff and landings

A. Air density
B. Surface wind
C. Runway surface
D. Upslope or downslope of runway
E. Weight

29

Spin

Is controlled or uncontrolled maneurver in which the airplane descends in a helical path while flying at an AOA greater than the critical AOA. Caused by exceeding critical AOA while applying excessive or insufficient rudder and lesser extent, aileron

30

Vso

Stall speed in landing config

31

Va

Maneurving speed

32

Maneurering Speed

Max speed at which the limit can be imposed without causing structural damage. Allows to stall before an increase in load factor that would exceed the limit load.
Increases with increase in weight and decrease with decrease in weight

33

May result in load factors reaching the max or being exceeded

-level turns—>load increases significantly after the bank has reached 45* or 50*. Load factor on 60 deg. Is 2G
-turbulence—> severe vertical gusts cause a sudden increase of AOA results in large loads which are resisted by inertia of plane
-speed—> load depends on the speed. Speeds below manuerving speed plane will stall before the load factor can become excessive. Above maneuvering speed, limit load factor can be exceeded by excessive application of the controls

34

Vlo

Max Landing gear operating speed

35

Rearward Center of gravity

Lower stall speed
Higher cruise speed
Less stable

36

Ground Effect

Improved performance the plane experiences when its operating near the ground. Airflow around the wing is restricted by the surface.

37

Performance characteristics affected when overloaded

A. Higher takeoff speed
B. Longer takeoff roll
C. Reduced rate and angle of climb
D. lower max alt
E. Shorter range
F. Reduced cruising speed
G. Reduced maneurverabililty
H. Higher stalling speed
I. Higher landing speed
J. Longer landing roll
K. Excessive weight on the nosewheel

38

Density alt

Pressure alt. Corrected for nonstandard temp. Under standard atmospheric condition, air at each level in the atmosphere has a specific density, and under standard conditions, pressure altitude and density altitude identify the same level. Density alt. Is vertical distance above sea level