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Flashcards in Chapter 7 night operations Deck (31):
1

Two distinct types of light sensitive cells located in retina

Rods and cones

2

Function of cones, where are they located

Used to detect color, detail and faraway objects and are in the center of the retina at the back of the eye. Less sensitive to light and are more useful in daylight

3

Function of rods and location

Located in the back of the eye or retina. Rods function when something is seen out of the corner of the eye or peripheral vision. Detect objects, those that are not moving, but no detail or color only shades of gray. Both used for daylight. Night vision places almost entirely on rods

4

Time it takes for rods and cones to adapt to darkness

Approx 5-10 min to become adjusted for cones. And 3o min for rods

5

What should pilot do to accommodate changing light conditions

Pilots should allow enough time for eyes to become adapted to low light levels, and avoid exposure to bright light which causes temp blindness

6

Illusions related to ground lighting conditions

A. Stationary lights can be mistaken for stars or other planes
B. Black hole approaches occur when landing is made from over water or non lighted terrain, where runway lights are the only source of light
C. Judging of distance and confusing runway and approach lights when landing

7

Takeoff plane feels excessively high nose-up attitude, what’s the illusion

Somatogravic illusion. Rapid acceleration during takeoff can create the illusion.

8

Well-lit runway surrounded by dark area with no features, what’s the illusion

Featureless terrain illusion - absence of ground features, as when landing over water, creating illusion plane is higher than it is. Causing low approach

9

Maintain good eyesight

Depends upon physical condition. Fatigue, colds vitamin deficiency, alcohol, smoking or medication

10

Improve night vision

Adapt eyes to darkness 30 min prior
Use oxygen
Close one eye when exposed to bright light
Do not wear sunglasses
Move eyes slowly
Blink eyes if become blurred
Concentrate on seeing objects
Force to view off center
Maintain good physical condition
Avoid smoking, drinking or drugs

11

Equipment for night flight operations

Flashlight (red/white light and blue)

12

Items have on board for night flight

Aeronautical charts. Spare batteries for flashlight

13

Arrangement and interpretation of position lights on plane

Red light on left wing, green on right wing, and white on tail. If both red and green observed, and red to the left and green to the right is flying same direction. If opposite than its on collision course

14

Position lights be on

From sunset to sunrise

15

Aircraft operated in or close proximity to a night operation area, what is required

Clearly illuminated
Have lighted position lights
Area which is marked by obstruction lights

16

Anticollision lights required to on during night flight operations

Yes, need to be lighted when PIC determines so, interest of safety to turn light off

17

Runway End Identifier lights (REIL)

Provide rapid and positive ident of approach end of particular runway. Consists of pair of synchronized flashing lights located laterally on each side of runway threshold.

18

Runway Edge Light System

Used to outline edges of runways during periods of darkness or restricted visibility conditions. Are white expect on instruments runways yellow replaces white. Lights marking the ends of runway emit red light otwward the runway to indicate end of runway to departing plane and emit green outward from the systems are classified according to intensity or brightness capability

19

Runway centerline lighting system (RCLS)

Installed on some precision approach runways to facilitate landing under adverse visibility conditions. Located along the runway centerline and are spaced at 50 foot intervals. Are white until 3000’ of runway. White begin to alternate with red for next 2000’ and last 1000’, all centerline lights are red

20

Touchdown Zone lights (TDZL)

Consist of two rows of transverse light bars disposed symmetrically about the centerline. Steady white lights start at 100’ beyond threshold and extend 3000’ beyond landing threshold or midpoint

21

Taxiway lighting at night

Edge lights - outline edges of taxiway, blue
Centerline - assist ground traffic in low visibility, green
Clearance bar - installed at holding positions on taxiways; consist of three in pavement, yellow
Runway guards - at taxiway/runway intersection; either pair of elevated flashing lights on either side of taxiway or in pavement yellow lights across taxiway
Stop bar - used to confirm ATC clearance to enter or cross active runway in low visibility, row of red, unidirectional, steady pavement lights. Across taxiway and pair of elevated steady red lights on each side

22

Different types of rotating beacons

White n green - lighted land airport
Green - lighted land airport
White and yellow - lighted water airport
Green, yellow, n white - lighted heliport
White (dual peaked and green) - military

23

Several types of obstruction lighting

Avaition red - flashing red beacons and steady burning aviation lights during nighttime
Medium and high intensity white light - may be used during daytime and twilight with reduced intensity for nighttime operation, not installed on structure less than 200’
Dual lighting - combination of flashing aviation red beacons and steady aviation red lights for nighttime operation and flashing high white lights for daytime
Catenary lighting - medium and high intensity flashing white markers for high voltage transmission lines and support structures

24

Determine status of light system at airport

Check chart supp and NOTAMS

25

Activate radio controlled runway light system while airborne

By keying microphone on a specified frequency
A. Initial arrival, click mic 7x to turn on and max brightness
B. If already on, repeat 7x to ensure full 15 min
C. Adjusted by keying mic 7, 5, or 3 within 5 secs

26

Preflight for night flight

A. Study weather reports and forecast
B. Calculate wind directions and speeds along proposed route of flight to ensure accurate drift calculations,
C. Obtain applicable aeronautical charts for all routes, mark checkpoints
D.Review all radio nav aids for frequencies
E. GPS is working properly, and waypoints loaded
F. Check all personal equipment
G. Thoroughly preflighted
H. All plane position lights work as well as landing light and rotating beacon
I. Ground areas checked for obtruction that may not be visibility

27

Guidelines to follow during starting, taxing and run up at night

Exercise extra caution on clearing the prop area. Use of lights prior to and after engine startup and alert people.
Taxing avoid unnecessary use of electrical equipment. Like landing light
Taxi slow and follow taxi lines

28

Guidelines to follow during takeoff and landing phase of night

A. Take off
Take off roll, use both distant runway edge lights as well as landing light area to keep aircraft straight and parallel
Lift off, keep positive climb by referencing attitude indicator and positive rate of climb on vertical speed indicator
B. Climb out
Do not initiate any turns until reaching safe maneuvering speed
Turn landing light off after climb

29

Provide proper orientation and navigation during night

Exercise caution to avoid flying into clouds or layer of fog. Indication is is gradual disappearance of lights on ground
Practice and acquire competency in straight and level flight climbs and descents, level turns, climbing and descending turns, and steep turns. And practice with cockpit lights off
Continue monitor position, time estimates and fuel consumed

30

Engine failure at night

Positive control, pitch for best glide, turn toward airport, checklist, if unsuccessful to recover sqwak 7700 and 121.5. Declare emergency, WHO, WHERE, and WHAT
Landing areas
Lighted areas- highways, roads, parks (can see it but many obtrusctions around that area)
Unlighted areas - lake, field. Can’t see but few obstructions

31

Procedures allowed during approach and landing phase of night

A. Identify airport and lighting and runway lighting
B. Flown toward airport beacon until runway lights are identified
C. Powered approach used because visual perception during descent at night is difficult
D. Landing light on upon entering traffic
E. Avoid use of excessive speed on approach and landing