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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Pt.2 Test Deck (78):
1

greek philosopher
did experimenting of cutting object in half
called this the atomus
(model is round and plain)
he dissappeared, along with his theories

Democritus

2

british
all matter is made up of atoms
all atoms of an element are exactly alike
they're different than the atomus of any other element
matter is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction
model of atom = spherical

Dalton

3

realized there are + and - charges in an atom
he believed the whole atom was solid w/ all positives
called "-" charges, electrons

J.J. Thomson

4

propelled alpha particles through gold foil
some alpha particles went through, or bounced back
ATOM IS EMPTY SPACE
DENSE CENTER
ELECTRONS MOVE RANDOMLY AROUND NUCLEUS

Rutherford

5

it acts like a wave.
it reflects and refracts

light

6

what does every element produce when being burned?

light

7

when light is passed through a prism, it separates into what?

wave-lengths

8

these wavelengths are ....

discrete
unique pattern

9

german
in an element, light is given off or absorbed as packets of energy
packets are "quantized"
they come in different sizes

Max Plank

10

a fan has 3 speeds
fast food meals come in regular or extra large sizes

Analogies for Quantize

11

example: "slider" for brightness on ipad -

nonanologies

12

packet of light energy -

Quantum

13

Quantum's also know as ...

photons

14

who created the Quantum Theory?

Max Plank
Albert Einstein

15

every electron has a fixed orbit
every electron has a location
every orbit has a # of electrons
farther from nucleus the more energy it takes to stay in orbits

Bohr

16

normal location of an electron =

ground state

17

farther from nucleus.... the __________________ it takes to stay in orbit

more energy

18

can higher orbits exists even if there are no electrons located there?

yes

19

what happens at step one of energy levels?

photon hits electron
electron absorbs and absorbs energy

20

Step two:

electron absorbs energy
electron jumps to higher energy level

21

Step three -

unstable electron loses energy & returns to ground state

22

published Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
said you can know electrons location&momentum, but not at same time -

Heisenberg

23

showed that u can calculate the probability of an electron being in a certain location
-don't know exactly the location of electron
-you can know probability of area where it should be

Schrodinger and Born?

24

Quantum mechanical model... also known as -

wave mechanical model

25

Quantum mechanical model combines ideas from ....

scientists

26

Quantum Mechanical Model:
electrons are in the ______ ________.

energy level

27

Quantum Mechanical Model:
-limited _________ in energy level

electrons

28

energy levels have sub levels called ...

orbitals

29

what are the 4 different quantities -

n
l
m
s

30

n = ?

which energy level?

31

L = ?

shape of orbital

32

m = ?

where on x & y axis?

33

s = ?

spin up or down

34

Principle Energy Level = ....

N

35

n describes how ______ an electrons orbit is from the _________.

far
nucleus

36

N can be divided into sublevels ....

L

37

sub level ... = ....

orbitals

38

it's the region of space where there is 90% chance of finding the electron -

orbital

39

orbital and orbits do NOT mean the same thing.

true

40

energy level # of orbitals Orbital Names
n= 4 L=4 4s 4p 4u 4f
n=1 L=1 1s

just example

41

every energy level (n) has same number of _________ (l).

orbitals

42

s goes with the ______ orbital

1st

43

p goes with the _______ orbital

2nd

44

u goes with the _______ orbital

3rd

45

f goes with the _______ orbital

4th

46

who did Einstein disagree with??

Heisenberg and Bohr

47

they held conferences. and there was a lot of tension between who?

Bohr and Einstein

48

S looks like a ....

sphere

49

p = "pinched" so looks like....

8

50

d = "down on the ground" =

four leaf clover

51

f = ...

far too complicated

52

1s...

small

53

2s...

medium

54

3s...

large

55

Px =

8 going sideways (acrossed the x-axis)

56

Py =

8

57

how many orbitals in "d" orbital?

5

58

how many f orbitals are therE?

7

59

what orbital tells u the orientation in space of each orbitals -

m

60

what orbital tells u the spin of the electrons movement?

s orbital

61

1/2 -

up

62

-1/2 =

down

63

each orbital can hold no more than ________ electrons

2

64

electrons must have ___________ spin

opposite

65

one _______, and one _________.

up / down

66

electrons fill in orbitals starting at the lowest energy level
"electrons are lazy"

Aufbau Principle

67

place one electron in each empty orbital in an energy level before you add a second electron to that orbital -

Hunds Rule

68

no more than 2 electrons may occupy an orbital & must have opposite spins -

Pauli Exclusion Act

69

a maximum of ______ electrons may occupy a single orbital, but only if the electrons have __________ spins

2
opposite

70

Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom =

electrons located in energy levels

71

electrons are located by 4 _________ ___________.

different quantities

72

limited # of ___________ per energy __________.

electrons
level

73

its the fixed amount of energy -

energy levels

74

what are the 4 quantum #'s -

n
m
l
s

75

define orbitals -

sublevels in energy levels

76

what is the relationship between the principle energy level and the number of orbitals -

n = l

77

what orbitals are present if n = 3

s3
p3
u3

78

what orbitals are present if n = 4

4s
4p
4u
4f