Flashcards in Chapter 4 - Student Diversity Deck (64):
The language, attitudes, ways of behaving, and other aspects of life that characterize a group of people
Socioeconomic Status (SES)
A measure of prestige within a social group that is most often measured by income and education, because they're most quantifiable. However, SES encompasses a person's income, education, occupation, and prestige in society.
A group within a larger society that sees itself as having a common history, social and cultural heritage, and traditions, often based on race, religion, language, or national identity.
A history, culture, and sense of identity shared by a group of people
Visible genetic characteristics of individuals that cause them to be seen as members of the same broad group (e.g., African, Asian, Caucasian).
An ethnic or social group, members of which are less likely than other groups to experience economic security or power
In the United States, native speakers of any language other than English.
Limited English Proficient (LEP)
Possessing limited mastery of English
Students in U.S. schools who are not native speakers of English.
Instructional program for students who speak little or no English in which some instruction is provided in the native language.
Education that teaches the value of cultural diversity.
Teachers' use of examples, data, and other information from a variety of cultures.
Helping students understand how the knowledge we take in is influenced by our origins and points of view.
A critical goal of multicultural education; involves development of positive relationships and tolerant attitudes among students of different backgrounds.
Teaching techniques that facilitate the academic success of students from different ethnic and social class groups.
Empowering School Culture
A school culture in which the institution's organization and practices are conducive to the academic and emotional growth of all students.
Socially approved behavior associated with one gender as opposed to the other.
Stereotypical views and differential treatment of males and females, often favoring one gender over the other.
General aptitude for learning, often measured by the ability to deal with abstractions and to solve problems.
Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
An intelligence test score that for people of average intelligence should be near 100.
In Gardner's theory of intelligence, a person's nine separate abilities: logical/mathematical, linguistic, musical, naturalist, spatial, bodily/kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and existential.
Interaction of individual differences in learning with particular teaching methods.
Name four ways the school expects the child to act that do not always line up with the culture or expectations of the student.
Speak standard English
To be highly verbal
To work independently
To compete with other students for grades and recognitions
What values does the culture of the school reflect?
The culture of school reflects mainstream middle-class values. This can disadvantage students from different cultures!
Chapter I Schools
Chapter I school have a majority low SES students.
How should one treat students at a Chapter I school?
One should treat the students with normality, expecting everyone to work hard, attend, and do the same thing regardless of SES.
An impoverished subgroup of the lower-working class that has experienced particularly severe difficulties in terms of unemployment, crime, and social disorganization (dysfunctional families).
Refers to families whose wage earnings are in occupations requiring significant education - a four year bachelor's degree or higher. Teachers fall in here.
Families who have relatively stable occupations not requiring higher education. (Votech)
Families in the urban or rural underclass who are often unemployed and might be living on government assistance.
What sorts of things do we expect children entering kindergarten to know (but that many students from low-income families may not)?
How to follow directions
How to share politely
What level of SES students continue to make progress over the summer? Which level tends to forget what they learned and fall behind?
High SES students tend to make progress over the summer, while low SES students tend to receive less academic stimulation over the summer and will often forget what they learned.
Name two values of the middle-class.
Future Time Orientation
Name one value of the lower-class.
Children from low-income families, typically. They are placed at-risk for school failure by the characteristics of the community they live in and the schools they attend.
Name six problems often faced in impoverished neighborhoods.
Lack of a positive role model
Inadequate social and health services
Name two types of intensive intervention programs that can help children from low-income families.
Success for All
Name two races that have been accepted into mainstream US society.
Name three racial groups that have yet to be fully accepted into mainstream US society.
What is resistant culture?
Resistant culture is when someone from a less accepted racial group starts overcoming racial barriers and achieving, but then other members of the minority make fun of them and insult them for doing well academically (you're acting "white") because doing well academically means they want to do well and leave the 'hood'.
What is the self-fulfilling prophecy about students from minority groups?
Students from minority groups are often placed into low ability groups through tracking, or placed disproportionately in special education classes.
What case ruled separate but equal schooling unconstitutional?
The 1954 Brown vs. the Board of Education Topeka court case ruled separate but equal unconstitutional.
Why didn't school desegregation increase the academic achievement of low income students from minority students?
The middle-class, achievement oriented peers that these minority students were supposed to interact with (which would help them) moved rather than be part of desegregation.
In the US, native speakers of any language other than English (but if one is completely bilingual, he or she doesn't fall under this).
English as a second language - a subject in school for students who are not native speakers of English.
English Language Learner
What is the melting pot philosophy, and why does this conflict with parents from minority groups?
The melting pot philosophy is the idea of assimilating minority groups into mainstream America so that cultural differences will disappear, but parents often want to maintain their group identity and pride.
Two-way Bilingual Program
A form of bilingual education in which students from different language backgrounds learn one another's language (dual immersion).
What is the number one problem facing bilingual education programs?
The number one problem facing bilingual education programs is the lack of teachers who are bilingual.
Name the five dimensions of multicultural education.
Empowering School Culture
Teachers' use of examples, data, and information from a variety of cultures (teaching about different cultures and contributions made by individuals).
Knowledge construction is when teachers help students understand how knowledge is created and how it is influenced by the racial, ethnic, and social class positions of individuals and groups - seeing history from the perspective of another culture.
What accounts for the differences in behaviors between genders?
Socialization experiences account for the differences in behavior between males and females, because gender roles are a learned behavior.
What do males typically score higher on?
Males typically score higher on tests of general knowledge, mechanical reasoning, and mental rotation.
What do females typically score higher on tests of?
Females typically score higher on language measures - reading and writing assessment - and on attention and planning tasks.
What tests are there typically no difference on between males and females?
Males and females typically perform the same on tests of general verbal ability, arithmetic skills, abstract reasoning, special visualization, and memory span.
Devised the first measure of intelligence in 1904.
What is the standard deviation on most intelligence tests?
The standard deviation on most intelligence tests is 15 or 16.
What is Spearman's G?
Spearman's G stands for general intelligence, which cuts across al learning situations and is combined with the skills a person has towards the tasks.
What shapes or determines intelligence?
A combination of heredity and environment shapes intelligence - children of high achieving parents tend to be provided a more enriching environment and activities.
Name two misuses of intelligence tests.
Two misuses of intelligence tests are using them to assign students to special education classes, or to assign students to track or ability groups.
Cognitive orientations for approaching learning tasks and processing information.
Field Dependent Learning Style
Learning style in which patterns are perceived as a whole. These people tend to have difficulty separating out specific aspects of a situation or pattern, but tend to be oriented towards people and social relationships and are better at recalling such social information. They tend to work best in groups and prefer subjects like history and literature.