Chapter 4- Weathering And Erosion Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4- Weathering And Erosion Deck (65):
1

What is type of weathering which is the breakdown of rocks by physical forces

Physical weathering

2

Another type of physical weathering involves the breaking or peeling way of rocks in layers

Exfoliation

3

The other type of weathering which happens when rocks react with water and the minerals may weaken or dissolve away causing the rocks to crumble

Chemical weathering

4

What is the main agent of chemical weathering

Water

5

Name the process by which rock fragments are carried away by wind

Erosion

6

What do we call large streams that carry water from the mountains to the sea they are known as

Rivers

7

The source of a river is called what

Headwater

8

What do we call the steepness of the slope of a river

Gradient

9

The material carried by stream is called it’s

Node

10

What do we call all the streams that merge toward the sea as one large river

A river system

11

The region of land that is drained by a river system is called

A drainage basin

12

What do we call two adjoining drainage basin’s that are separated by what

drainage divide

13

What do we call numerous streams that feed into the river at various points

Tributaries

14

What do we call the level or nearly level land that borders or river that is covered by river water in flood time

Floodplain

15

Natural Bridges of sediment dropped by the river from the rivers edge are called

Levees

16

Winding groups of the river are called

Meanders

17

When a meander is bypassed and becomes cut off from the rest of the river it forms a crescent shaped body of water called a

Oxbow lake

18

What is a fan shaped or triangular deposit extended from the mountain to the sea

Delta

19

After a heavy rain sediments are often carry from higher elevation on a mountain to the base which one is it Delta like deposit called a what

In alluvial fan

20

After acidic water dissolves Limestone to calcite what are the names of the large caves it produces

Caverns

21

What do we call the buildup of calcium carbonate that is on the ceilings and the floors of the cavern

Dripstone

22

What are icicle like masses called when they are grown on the ceiling

Stalactites

23

What do we call the column like masses on the ground

Stalagmites

24

At the surface what do we call the funnel shaped depression in the ground when a cave collapses

A sinkhole

25

Regions of the earth surface where limestone is exposed and abundant are called what

Karst

26

What do we call offshore bridges of sand or gravel

Bars

27

What do we call high ridges of rock land that project out into the sea along deepwater shorelines

Promontory

28

Waves may erode the base of a promontory which may fall into the sea leaving behind a vertical face of rock called what

Seacliff

29

Indentations in the sea cliff that are often exposed in low tide are called what

Sea caves

30

What are the narrow formations of rock that arch out from the coast and that are usually pulled from eroded sea caves

Sea arches

31

Isolated columns of rock that form when the sea arch collapses is called a what

Sea stack

32

What do we call a sheet that slowly moves under its own weight

Glacier

33

Name the two types of glaciers

Continental and valley glaciers

34

Where would you mainly find continental glaciers

Greenland and Antarctica

35

Smaller ice sheets that are found in Iceland and Norway are called what?

Ice caps

36

What do we call glaciers that are rivers of ice that slowly flow down from mountainous regions into valleys

Valley glacier or alpine glacier

37

What’s another name for a valley glacier

Alpine glacier

38

What do we call cracks and fixtures in the glacier

Crevasses

39

What do we call a valley glacier that scoops out a huge bowl shaped depression in the highlands, What is that depression called

Cirque

40

Name a Sharp ridge that divides to cirques

Arête

41

What do we call a sharp steeple shaped point where three or more cirque cut into a mountain peak

A horn

42

When a glacier carves out valleys along its coast line it sometimes fills with seawater creating a

Fjord

43

When a glacier retreats in warmer weather and often dumps rocks on the ground it is called

Till

44

What do we call an accumulation piles a degree of till left by a retreating glacier

Moraine

45

When the glacier advances again in the winter time it may overrun old moraines smoothing the til onto Lowhills called

Drumlin

46

What do we call large holes left in the melting of huge chunks of glacial ice lodged in till out wash

Kettles

47

The period of widespread glaciation is commonly call the what?

Ice age

48

Erosion by the wind is not as widespread as water erosion which is powered by glaciation but eRosian by the wind is called what kind of processes

Aeolian processes

49

The most important effect of wind Erosion is what

Deflation

50

Over time, deflation may cause a barren rocky surface called a

Desert pavement

51

Sometimes the wind forms shallow depressions where material has been blown away

Blowouts

52

What we call windstorms that carry coarse sand particles and the fine particles of dry soil

Sandstorm

53

What is the name given to the load of Thick clay and silt dropped by a dust storm

Loess

54

What we call the names given to huge heaps of loose and windblown sand that are common in deserts and beach

Sand dunes

55

What do we call the action of the windblown sand

Abrasion

56

An erosion method prevention that changes a smooth slope into many stair like levels is called what

Terracing

57

What do we call the process where gravity causes the downslope movement with rocks soil, ash, snow or ice

Mass wasting

58

This occurs when individual rock fragments break off the sides of a steep cliff that is often caused by exfoliation

Rockfall

59

What do we call this type of mass wasting, when huge masses of rock or soil suddenly slide down a slope

Landslide

60

These are the most fluid and fastest type of mass wasting, rapid movement of loose water saturated soil

Mudflow

61

What do we call when a mass of ice and snow become dislodged with the mountain face

Avalanche

62

What do we call a very slow sometimes a few inches of movement (or less per year) downslope movement of soil and rock fragments, it can be caused by soil expansion and contraction due to the changes of heat and moisture by the actions of plants and animals

Soil creep

63

Name the process where thin sheets of topsoil are stripped away from the surface of the land

Sheet erosion

64

After a rill is formed by heavy rains the shallow cutting the soil could lead to a channel being cut in the ground which cannot be repaired by ordinary cultivation is called a

Gully

65

Which force has the greatest effect on erosion in the earths surface

Running water