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What did the Greeks call themselves?



What were the Greek people a mixture of?

Aegean (descendants of the Minoans & Mycenaens)
Dorians ( invaders from the North)
Ionians (invaders from the East)


As in Independent city-states what is the Greek stem for city-state?

polis, poleis (plural)


What is the Greek term for a military state?



What two Greek stems make the word meaning "ruled by the people"?

demos= people & cracy= rule


What is the most famous democratic Greek city?



Why should democratic Athens not be idealized?

democracy was limited to men w/ property & citizenship. Women, non-Greeks, and slaves had no say.


What is Athens considered to be and what may it have fostered?

considered the birth place of democracy.
fostered intellectual freedom that lead to great achievements in art, architecture, literature, philosophy, and science.


What unified the Greeks into a coherent culture?

Language ( they see themselves superior to non-Greek speaking people)
Shared pantheon of Gods and Goddesses
Shared history (war against Troy)
the Olympic games


When was the first Olympic games first held?

in 776 BCE


How did the Olympic games bring the city-states together?

In a celebration of their greatness. Together the competitors represented the superiority that the Greeks considered themselves to be.


what is Humanism?

Humanism is a philosophy or perspective that elevates the human being to a central position and stresses the dignity, worth and capacity for self realization of the individual through reason ( it shifts away from stressing the supernatural authority of the Gods)


what is the word for the humans being "the measure of all things"?



What is the Greek cultures humanistic world view?

One of the most important aspects=Greek Gods and Goddesses were like humans:
human form
human emotions
weaknesses that lead them to make mistakes


what is the idea behind the famous quote "The Greeks made their Gods into humans and their humans into Gods" reflect?

Greek Humanism which elevates the human while bringing the gods down to a more human level.


How does the humanist perspective influence art?

By focusing artist on depicting the human being more accurately and naturalistically while maintaining high ideals and standards to convey timeless perfection and beauty.


How does the humanistic perspective influence architecture?

Naturalistic and idealized styles developed that were characterized by a sense of order, balance and harmony.


What was the first art form to make a strong comeback in the 8th century BCE?

ceramic pottery created on the potters wheel and decorated with geometric patterns and figures.


where did the "Geometric Period" get its name from?

ceramic pottery decorated with horizontal bands filled with either purely Geometric designs (zigzags, diamonds, meanders, dots and checkered squares) or with human and animal figures reduced to schematic geometric shapes: dots for heads, triangles for torsos, sticks for arms and legs, and rounded hips and thighs.


define Krater

A wide-mouthed bowl used for mixing wine and water.


what were the large kraters used for?

Serves a purely commemorative function being both larger in scale and open at the bottom so that poured offerings seep directly into the ground.


What are two examples of Geometric-styled vessels?

Krater and Amphora


What is an Amphora?

A storage jar that curves in towards the top to protect its contents.(usually wine, water, honey, and olive oil)


What was the Amphora's of the 8th century used for?

To mark a persons grave.


what is the paint or glaze used on pottery made of?

Finely ground clay with water added to make it fluid.


how were the horizontal bands created on the pottery thrown on a pottery wheel?

By spinning on the pottery wheel and using a paint brush. other details to the bands were meticulously hand painted. Then fired in a kilin at high temperatures.


What are the three stages of the firing process?

First-oxidizing=turned pots and glaze red
Second-reducing=oxygen cut off=pot turned black
third-re oxidizing=oxygen reintroduced-the glazed parts remain black, the unglazed parts reabsorb the oxygen and turn a reddish-orange color of the terra-cotta clay.


Which two cultures influenced the Greek art of the 600 BCE?

Egypt & the Near East


What period does Orientalizing art belong to?

600's BCE (900-600 BCE)


What is the Black-figure technique?

Black glaze is painted onto the surface to make silhouetted shapes, and a sharp pointed instrument incised linear detail within the forms.