Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (26):
French and Indian War
Also known as Seven Year's War. France's expansion into Ohio River valley brought conflict with the claims of the British colonies.
British received the territories of Canada from France and Florida from Spain, opening the Mississippi Valley to westward expansion. British won.
Sugar Act of 1764
Act by Parliament to raise taxes on foreign refined sugar.
Disrupted the colonial economy by reducing the markets the colonies could sell to. Led to the first instance of colonists wanting to control how much they were taxed.
Stamp Act of 1765
British Parliament required American colonists to pay a tax on every piece of printed paper they used.
It was viewed by the Americans as an attempt by England to raise money in the colonies without the approval of the colonial legislatures.
Quartering Act of 1765
It outlines the locations and conditions in which British soldiers are to find room and board in the American colonies. required the colonies to house British soldiers in barracks provided by the colonies.
Some colonies refused to comply to the law. Conflict between Red Coats (British soldiers) and colonists were common.
Stamp Act Congress
Meeting between British colonies in North America and American colonies to talk about the Stamp Act.
it was the first gathering of elected representatives from several of the American colonies to devise a unified protest against new British taxation.
Sons of Liberty
Organization of protesters that originated in the North American British colonies.
Formed to protect the rights of the colonists and to take to the streets against the abuses of the British government.
Basic rights that no individual or government can take away.
The Declaration of Independence lists life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness as natural rights.
Declaratory Act of 1766
From the British Parliament. Said that Britain had taxing authority in America as it does in Great Britain.
Added to the colonists’ fear that the parliament threatens the well-established colonial institutions of self-government.
Townshend Act of 1767
Originated by Charles Townshend. Passed by English Parliament after repeal of Stamp Act. Added taxes on all goods imported into the US.
Parliament wanted to show that they had the right to impose the taxes.
Boycott of British imports by American colonists in reply to the Townshend Act.
Showed American outrage of being taxed without consent. Many merchants lost much of their businesses.
Committees of Correspondence
Committees that were formed throughout colonies. Their job was to inform voters of common threat faced by all the colonies.
Allowed colonies to coordinate actions against Great Britain.
Tea Act of May 1773
Passed by British Parliament. Allowed the British East India Company Tea a monopoly on tea sales in American colonies.
Motivated the Sons of Liberty to destroy over 92,000 pounds of tea in the Boston Harbor. (Sparked the Boston Tea Party).
4 acts established by British government. Goal was to restore order in Massachusetts after Boston Tea Party and other destruction of British property.
British thought that this would cut Boston and New England off from the other colonies, but the colonies defended Boston and New England. Led to First Continental Congress.
Served as the government of 13 American colonies from 1774-1789.
The first Continental Congress met in Philadelphia and began orchestrating a united resistance to British rule.
System created by First Continental Congress to put the trade boycott with Great Britain into effect.
Was a response to the Coercive Acts. Showed the outrage of Americans.
Lord Dunmore - Dunmore's War
Lord Dunmore was the governor of Virginia. He was a strong supporter of the Crown (Britain). Dunmore's War had 2 primary offensive, one agaisnt the natives in Kentucy area, and Fort Pitt in Pennsylvania.
He alienated all of Virginia. He offered freedom to slaves and indentured servants who would fight for Britain.
A member of American militia who volunteered for service.
They were well trained and better than normal militia. Played crucial role in Revolutionary War and earlier conflicts.
Second Continental Congress
Second convention of representatives from the Thirteen Colonies. Met in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
They approved the Olive Branch Petition, an appeal to the British King, an attempt to a peaceful resolution and declaration of loyalty to the Crown. King refused.
Principle that authority of government is created by consent of people, through their elected representatives (like a republic). Used to determine if territories should become slave or free territories.
Principle of the United States Constitution.
Lord of the Treasury. Later he was Prime Minister.
He was responsible for some of the taxes on American colonies. (Sugar Act and Stamp Act.
British chancellor of Exchequer.
His measures for the taxation of the colonies intensified the conflicts that led to American Revolution.
Prime Minister of Great Britain. Favored by King George III. He returned stability to Parliament.
He found a way to pay off Britain's debt from the Seven Years' War without further angering the American colonies.
Thomas Paine's Common Sense
American Revolutionary leader, supported American fight for independence. Common Sense was a book that challenged authority of the British.
The book was the first work to openly ask for independence from Great Britain.
Thomas Jefferson - Declaration of Independence
Thomas Jefferson was the Author of the Declaration of Independence.
The Declaration of Independence declared America's freedom and independence of the 13 Colonies from Great Britain.
John Dickinson's Letters from a farmer in Pennsylvania
John Dickinson was a successful lawyer in Philadelphia.
He refused to sign Declaration of Independence because he hoped for reconciliation with the King. The twelve letters were important in uniting colonists against the Townshend Acts.