Chapter 5- ADAPTATIONS TO ANAEROBIC TRAINING PROGRAMS Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5- ADAPTATIONS TO ANAEROBIC TRAINING PROGRAMS Deck (49):
1

Following resistance training, augmented neural drive to the working musculature is the result of?

Increased agonist muscle recruitment

Muscle hyper trophy

Greater synchronization

2

When one is performing a box to box ploy drop jump, in order to generate sufficient force in a limited amount of time, (<200ms), which muscle fibers are bypassed through the principle of selective recruitment?
A. I
B. IIa
c. IIx
D. IId

A. I

3

Which of the following performances or physiological characteristics is NOT usually observed Ina state of nonfunctional overreaching within athlete populations?
A. Stagnation
B. Hormonal disturbances
C. Mood disturbances and depression
D. Increased levels of fatigue

C. Mood disturbances

4

Following prolonged periods of retraining in elite strength/ power athletes, which of the following physical characteristics will likely show the largest reduction as a consequence of the removal of an anaerobic training stimulus?
A. Slow twitch fiber
B. Fast twitch fiber

B Fast twitch

5

Characterized by high intensity intermittent bouts of exercise that requires ATP to be regenerated at a faster rate than aerobic energy systems is capable of

Anaerobic training

6

Exercises such as sprints, and plyo drills primarily stress the ___ system. They are usually less than 10 seconds

Phosphagen

7

The functional unit of the neuromuscular system is the ____ unit

Motor unit

8

A motor unit may inner ate <10 muscle fibers for small muscles

>100 fibers for large powerful and limb muscles

9

The recruitment or decruitment of motor units is an orderly manner is governed by the _____ principle

Size principle

10

According to the principle, motor units are recruited in an ascending order according to their recruitment thresholds and firing rates

Size principle

11

Exceptions to the size principle DO exist. Under certain circumstances, and athlete is able to inhibit the lower-threshold motor units

Selective recruitment

12

The _______ junction is the interface between the nerve and the skeletal muscle fibers, and it represents another potential site for neural adaptation following anaerobic training.

Neuromuscular junction

13

_____ is a tool used to examine the magnitude of neural activation within skeletal muscle., more body fat the weaker the signal

Electromyography

14

The process of ____ involves both an increase in the synthesis of the contractile proteins actin and myosin within the myofibril and an increase in the number of myofibrils within the muscle fiber itself.

Hypertrophy

15

The term given to an increase in the number of muscle fibers via longitudinal fiber splitting in response high intensity resistance training

Hyperplasia

16

___ muscle has fascicles that attach obliquely (in a slanted position)

Pennate muscle

17

Any increase in muscle strength or mass may therefore result in a corresponding increase in _____ or the quantity of mineral deposited Ina given area of the bone

Bone mineral density

18

A disease in which BMD and bone mass become reduced to critically low levels

Osteoporosis

19

The primary structural component of all connective tissue is the ____ fiber

Collagen

20

When training frequency volume or intensity is excessive with out sufficient rest, recovery and nutrition intake

Over training

21

Training overload----->Acute fatigue

Days

22

FUnctional overreaching

Days to weeks

23

Nonfunctional overreaching

Weeks to months

24

Overtraining syndrome

Months or more

25

Term given to a decrement in performance and loss of the accumulated physiological adaptations following the cessation of anaerobic training

Detraining

26

The ____ is the interface between the nerve and the skeletal muscle fibers

Neuromuscular junction

27

Exercise induced muscle damage and disruption of myofibrils and the uniform structure of muscle fiber sarcomeres following high intensity anaerobic training also have a marked effect on ____ growth

Muscle

28

Spongy bone
A. Trabecular bone
B. Cortical bone

A.

29

Compact bone

COrtical bone

30

____ Bone is able to respond more rapidly to stimuli than cortical bone because it is softer, weaker, and more flexible and therefor einlcined to adaptive change.

Trabecular

31

__ ___ ____ refers to the threshold stimulus that initiates new bone formation.

Minimal essential strain

32

A disease in which BMD and bone mass become reduced to critically low levels.

Osteoporosis

33

Microfractures in bone due to structural fatigue

Stress fractures

34

The primary structural component of all connective tissue

Collagen

35

The parallel arrangement of filament is called a microfibril. Collagen has a striped (striated) appearance.

The true strength of collagen comes from the strong chemical bonds (cross linking)

36

Ligaments contain elastic fibers ____ in addition to collagen.

Elastin

37

The sites where connective tissue can increase strength and load bearing capacity are

1. Junctions between the tendon and bone surfaces
2. Within the body of the tendon or ligament
3. In the network of fascia within skeletal muscle

38

SPEcfic changes within a tendon that contribute to its increase in size and strength include the following

1. Increased in collagen fibril
2. A greater number of covalent cross links
3. An increase in the number of collagen fibrils

39

The main functions of cartilage:

1. Provide a smooth joint articulating surface
2. Act a s a shock absorber for forces directed through the the joint
3. Aid in the attachment of connective tissue to the skeleton

40

Cartilage found on the articulating surfaces of bone____

Hyaline cartilage

41

A tough form of cartilage found in the intervertebral disk and at the junctions where tendons attach to bones.

Fibrous cartilage

42

The rate pressure product has been shown to either remain constant or decrease following resistance training

STROKE VOLUME has been shown to increase magnitude but not relative to body surface area or lean body mass.

43

Chronic resistance training alters cardiac dimensions. Increased left ventricle wall thickness.

True due to high BP

44

What performance improvements occur with ANaerobic exercise?

1. Muscular strength- 40% increase, type 2x to type 2a (less fatigue )

2. Power-high loads 30-60%

3. Body comp- increase fat free mass and reduce body fat by up to 9%

45

WHen an athlete intakes excessive training that leads to SHORT TERM decrement a in performance, this temporary response has been termed,

Overreaching or functional overreaching

46

Without proper recovery an athlete can evolve into a state of extreme overreaching or ____ ____

Nonfunctional overreaching

47

Prolonged maladaptation

Overtraining syndrome

48

Overtraining can last as long as ___ months

6

49

Decrement in performance and loss of the accumulated physiological adaptations

Detraining