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Flashcards in Chapter 5 concepts Deck (45):
1

how can we measure infants ability to process information?

mental processes are measured by 1.Habituation and 2. other signs of visual and perceptual abilities. And that these abilities are present from birth.
Contrary to Piaget's ideas.

2

When do infants begin to understand characteristics of the physical world?

Research has showed that infants as young as 3-6 months have a grasp on Piagetian abilities such as 1.Categorizing 2. Causality 3. Object permanence 4.Sense of numbers

3

What does Habitutation mean?

"Familiarity breeds loss of interest". A type of learning when repeated or continuous exposure to a stimulus reduced the attention towards that stimulus. Baby looses interest

4

What is dishabituation?

An increase in responsiveness after presentation of a new stimulus.

5

Visual preference

Infants spend more time looking at one sight than another.

6

Visual recognition memory

A babies ability to distinguish a new stimuli from a familiar one when shown both at the same time.

7

What are the 6 approaches to cognitive development? BPPICC

Behaviorist approach
Psychometric approach
Piagetian approach
Information processing approach
Cognitive neuroscience approach
Social Contextual approach

8

What is the Behaviorist approach?

The study of mechanics of learning. How behavior changes in response to experience.

9

What is the Psychometric approach?

Measures quantitative differences in abilities that make up intelligence

10

What is Piagetian approach?

Looks at changes in the quality of cognitive functioning. How the mind structures its activities to adapt to the environment.

11

Information processing approach?

study of development that analyzes processes involved in perceiving and handling information.

12

Cognitive neuroscience approach?

study of development that links brain processes with cognitive ones.

13

social contextual approach?

study of development tat focuses on environmental influenced particularly parents and caregivers.

14

Explain classic conditioning, and give an example

its learning based on associating a stimulus that doesn't elicit a response with another stimulus that does elicit a response.
An example. baby blinks at camera flash at first, then it becomes habit everytime she sees the camera.

15

Explain Operant conditioning, give an example

learning based on association of behavior with its consequences.
Example. baby babbling at the sight of parents, to get parents attention.

16

What is Baleys scales of infant and Toddler development

its a standardized test of infants and toddlers mental and motor development.

17

What is Home observation for Measurement of the Environment. HOME

measuring the influence of the home environment on children's cognitive growth.

18

Summarize the major development during the 6 sub stages of the sensorimotor stage

1. Babies exercise the inborn abilities
2. Babies repeat pleasurable behaviors
3.Babies show interest in the environment
4.Babies behavior is more deliberate and purposeful
5. Toddlers show curiosity and experimentation
6. Toddlers can mentally represent events, they are not confined to trial and error to solve problems.

19

What are baby schemes

organized thoughts and behaviors.

20

object permanence

piagets term for understanding an object and person still exist even when out of sight

21

What are the 4 types of imitation?

Invisible, visible, deferred, elicited

22

What is pictorial competence?

ability to understand the nature of pictures, develops at 19 months

23

Classic and Operant conditioning fall under which type of approach?

Behaviorist

24

What type of tests and observations fall under Psychometric approach?

HOME, Baleys scales of infant and toddler development, IQ tests, Early intervention

25

What is early intervention?

providing services to help families meet young childrens developmental needs

26

Define representational ability

the ability to mentally represent objects and actions in memory. By symbols, words, numbers

27

What are circular reactions?

When an infant learns to reproduce a pleasurable event originally discovered by chance.

28

When does object permanence develop?

4-8 months

29

What is guided participation?

adults contribution to help bring a child's understanding closer to the adults.

30

implicit memory?

unconscious memory, habits and skills

31

explicit memory?

intentional memory. Names, facts, events.

32

When does babbling occur in babies?

6-10 months

33

When do babies make their cooing sounds?

between 6 weeks and 3 months.

34

What is a helophrase?

single word that means a complete thought?

35

What are 5 ways in which early speech differs from adult speech?

Children...
1.Simiplify
2.Can understand grammatical relationships they cannot yet express
3.Enderextend word meaning (koo-ka)
4.Overextend word meaning (that's gampa)
5.Overregularize rules (coldy)

36

What did Skinner say about language learning?

That is was based off experience

37

What is Chomsky's theory about language?

That people have basic pattern of learning language in their brains since they were born.

38

What was BF Skinners theory on language?

Believed that people needed to be taught how to speak by someone for language acquisition.

39

What is Chomsky's view of language called?

Nativism

40

what is nativism? (Chomsky)

it emphasizes the active role of the learner. And they we are born with a LAD which analyzes the language an infant hears and figures out its rules.

41

What parts of the brain are involved with early language development?

the Pons and Brain stem. Then repetitive babbling may emerge with maturation of the motor cortex.

42

What is code mixing?

Bilingual children use elements from both languages sometimes in the same utterance

43

What is code switching?

shifting from one language to another.

44

What is Child Directed Speech?

CDS is a form of speech for babies or toddlers. slow simplified words, exaggeration, high pitched

45

Why is reading aloud to children so important?

it helps children build language skills and learn how letters look and sound.