Chapter 5- Physical Development In Infancy And Toddlerhood Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5- Physical Development In Infancy And Toddlerhood Deck (123):
1

Baby fat helps the infant:

Maintain a constant body temperature

2

Describe sex and ethnic differences in body size and muscle fat make up during infancy

Sex differences: girls are slightly shorter and lighter than boys, with a higher ratio of fat to muscle

Ethnic differences: Asians are below North American in gross norms. African-American children are larger in size

3

A growth pattern from the Latin word for head to tail. During the prenatal period, the head develops more rapidly than the lower part of the body

Cephalocaudal trend

4

A growth pattern where gross proceeds from here to far, from the center of the body outward. In the prenatal period, the head, chest, and trunk grow first, then the arms and legs, and finally the hands and feet

Proximodistal trend

5

The best estimate of a child's physical maturity is this, a measure of development of the bones of the body

Skeletal age.

6

How is an estimate of a child's physical maturity using skeletal age obtained?

Special growth centers, called epiphyses Pier at the two extreme ends of each of the long bones of the body and cartilage cells continue to be produced at the growth plates of these epiphyses, which increase in numbers throughout childhood and then, as growth continues, get thinner and disappear. Skeletal age can be estimated by x-raying the bones and seeing the number of epiphyses and the extent to which they are fused

7

True or false: African-American children tend to be slightly behind Caucasian-American children in skeletal age

False, African-American children tend to be slightly ahead of Caucasian-American children in skeletal age

8

What are three possible consequences of girls greater physical maturity during infancy and childhood?

Contributes to girls greater resistance to harmful environmental influences. Girls experience fewer developmental problems than boys, and have lower infant and childhood mortality rates

9

At birth, the bones of the skull are separated by six gaps, or soft spots called

Fontanels. Permit the bones to overlap as the large head of the baby passes through the mothers narrow birth canal

10

The human brain has 100 to 200 billion ________, or nerve cells, that store and transmit information by releasing chemicals called ______________ across tiny gaps called ______________

Neurons, neurotransmitters, synapses

11

Neurons that are seldom stimulated soon lose their synapses through this process that returns neurons not needed at the moment to an uncommitted state so that they can support future development

Synaptic pruning

12

About half the brains volume is made up of ________, which are responsible for ______________, The coating of neural fibers with an insulating fatty sheath that improves the efficiency of message transfer

Glial cells, myelination

13

Method for measuring brain functioning. Electrodes embedded in a head cap record electrical brainwave activity in the brains outer layers, the cerebral cortex.

Electroencephalogram EEG

14

A method for measuring brain functioning. Using the EEG, the frequency and amplitude of brain waves in response to particular stimuli are recorded in the cerebral cortex. Enables identification of general regions of stimulus induced activity

Event-related potentials

15

A method for measuring brain functioning. While the person lies inside a tunnel-shaped apparatus that creates a magnetic field, a scanner mechanically detects increased blood flow and oxygen metabolism in areas of the brain as the individual processes particular stimuli.

Functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI

16

A method for measuring brain functioning. After injection or inhalation of a radioactive substance, the person lies on an apparatus with a scanner that emits fine streams of x-rays, which detect increased blood flow and oxygen metabolism in areas of the brain as the person processes particular stimuli

Positron emission tomography PET

17

A method for measuring brain functioning. Using thin, flexible optical fibers attached to the scalp through a head cap, infrared light is beamed at the brain; it's absorption by areas of the cerebral cortex varies with changes in blood flow and oxygen metabolism as the individual processes particular stimuli

Near-infrared spectroscopy

18

True or false: near-infrared spectroscopy works well in infancy and childhood because the child can sit on the parents lap and move during testing, unlike other methods of measuring brain functioning

True

19

This is the largest brain structure, accounting for 85% of the brains weight and containing the greatest number of neurons and synapses

Cerebral cortex

20

This cortical region, lying in front of areas controlling body movement, is responsible for thought, in particular for consciousness, inhibition of impulses, integration of information, and use of memory, reasoning, planning, and problem-solving strategies

The prefrontal cortex

21

Which hemisphere of the cerebral cortex is largely responsible for verbal abilities such as spoken and written language, and positive emotions such as joy

The left hemisphere

22

Which hemisphere of the cerebral cortex handles spatial abilities such as judging distances, reading maps, and recognizing geometric shapes and negative emotion such as distress

The right hemisphere

23

How do lateralization and brain plasticity help the brain learn and adapt

Lateralization, specialization of the two hemispheres happens because each side of the brain is specialized for certain purposes. The left hemisphere is better at processing information in a sequential, analytic way, a good approach for dealing with communicative information. The right hemisphere is specialized for processing information in a holistic, integrative manner, ideal for making sense of spatial information and regulating negative emotion. He lateralized brain may have evolved because it enabled humans to cope more successfully with changing environmental demands and permits a wide area functions to be carried out effectively than if both sides processed information in the same way

Brain plasticity: a highly plastic cerebral cortex, in which many areas are not yet committed to a specific function, has a high capacity for learning. If part of the cortex is damaged, other parts can take over the tasks it would've handled

24

The brain is more/less plastic during the first few years then at any later time in life

More

25

Adults who suffered brain injuries in infancy and early childhood show fewer/more cognitive impairments and adults with later occurring injuries

Fewer

26

Describe the impact of brain injury on childhood language development and spatial skills, noting how this relates to brain plasticity

Children showed delays in language development that persisted until about 3 1/2 years of age which indicates that at first, language functioning is broadly distributed in the brain but by age 5, the children caught up in the vocabulary and grammatical skills because undamaged areas in the left or right hemisphere had taken over these language functions

Spatial skills were more impaired after early brain injury, when asked to copy designs, those with early right-hemispheric damage had trouble with elastic processing, accurately representing the overall shape. Children with left-hemisphere damaged captured the basic shape but omitted fine-grained details but children still showed improvement in their drawings with Age

Recovery after early brain injury is greater for language then for spatial skills

27

True or false: recovery after early brain injury is greater for language than for spatial skills

True

28

What are the negative consequences of high brain plasticity?

Despite impressive recovery of language and spatial skills, children with early brain injuries so deficits in a wide variety of complex mental abilities such as slower reading and math progress, simpler narratives in telling stories, poor scores on intelligence tests.

Hi brain plasticity comes at a price. When healthy brain regions take over the functions of damaged areas, a crowding effect occurs: multiple tasks must be done by a smaller than usual volume of brain tissue and consequently the brain processes information less quickly and accurately than it would if it were intact

29

True or false: brain plasticity is restricted to early childhood and is no longer evident by the time individuals reach adulthood. Explain your response

False, brain plasticity is not restricted to early childhood. Although far more limited, reorganization in the brain can occur later, for example, adult stroke victims often display consider bro recovery and brain imaging techniques reveal that structures adjacent to the permanently damaged area or in the opposite cerebral hemisphere re-organize to support the impaired ability

The adult brain can produce a small number of new neurons and when an individual practices relevant tasks, the brain strengthens existing synapses and generates new ones

30

Extreme _________ ___________ results in permanent brain damage, confirming the existence of sensitive periods in brain development

Sensory deprivation

31

What does research on orphanage children reveal about cognitive catch up?

Cognitive catch up was impressive for children adopted before six months, who consistently attained average mental test scores in childhood and adolescence.
But Romanian children who had been institutionalized for more than the first six months showed serious intellectual deficits. Although the improved in test scores during middle childhood and adolescence, they remain substantially below average and most displayed at least three serious mental health problems such as inattention, overactivity, unruly behavior, and autistic like symptoms

32

True or false: good parenting can protect the young brain from the potentially damaging effects of both excessive and inadequate stress hormone exposure

False, these children often display attachment difficulties that even a caring adopted family cannot completely overcome

33

Refers to the young brains rapidly developing organization, which depends on ordinary experiences, opportunities to see and touch objects to hear language and other sounds, and to move about and explore the environment

Experience-expectant brain growth

34

This type of brain growth occurs throughout our lives. It consists of additional growth and the refinement of established brain structures as a result of specific learning experiences that vary widely across individuals and cultures. Includes reading and writing, playing computer games, weaving a rug, and practicing the violin for example.

Experience-dependent brain growth

35

Evidence does/does not exist for a sensitive. In the first years of life for mastering skills that depend on extensive training, such as musical performance or gymnastics

Does not. Rushing early learning also harms the brain by overwhelming it's neural circuits, thereby reducing the brain sensitivity to the every day experiences it needs for a healthy start in life

36

In general, newborn babies sleep a total of ___ to ___ hours per day. The total sleep time of an infant declines quickly/slowly; The average two-year-old sleeps ___ to ___ hours per day

16 to 18 hours, slowly, 12 to 13 hours

37

The brain hormone that promotes drowsiness is called

Melatonin

38

True or false: 90% of North American parents cosleep with their babies

False, in United States and estimated 13% of infants routinely bed share, and an additional 30 to 35% sometimes do

39

True or false: among the Maya, mother-infant cosleeping is interrupted only by the birth of a new baby

True, after the birth of a new baby, the older child is moved next to the father or to another bed in the same room

40

True or false: compared to Caucasian-American families, African-American families are more likely to cosleep with their children

True

41

True or false: parent-child cosleeping is more common in collectivist than individualistic societies

True

42

True or false: over the past two decades, cosleeping has decreased in western nations

False, it has increased

43

True or false: during the night, cosleeping babies breast-feed three times longer than infants who sleep alone

True

44

True or false: parent-child cosleeping is a significant risk factor for SIDS

False, because infants aroused to nurse more often when sleeping next to their mothers, some researchers believe that cosleeping may actually help safeguard babies at risk for SIDS.

45

True or false: cosleeping reduces mothers total sleep time

False, cosleeping does not reduce mothers total sleep time

46

True or false: research consistently shows that cosleeping children are significantly more likely than their peers to have emotional problems

False

47

List two groups of parents who should probably not go sleep with their babies

Parents who are obese or who use alcohol, tobacco, or illegal drugs

48

True or false: when diet and health are adequate, height and rate of physical growth are largely determined by heredity

True. As long as negative environmental influences such as poor nutrition or illness are not severe, children and adolescents typically show catchup growth, a return to a genetically determined growth path once conditions improve

49

Under what circumstances are children and adolescents who suffer from illness or poor nutrition likely to show catch up growth

As long as negative environmental influences such as poor nutrition or illness are not severe

50

List for nutritional and health benefits of breast milk

Provides the correct balance of fat and protein

Ensures nutritional completeness

Helps ensure healthy physical growth: one your old breast-fed babies are leaner, have a higher percentage of muscle to fat which may help them to prevent later overweight and obesity

Protects against many diseases

Protects against faulty jaw development and tooth decay

Ensures digestibility

51

List two ways that breast-feeding can benefit mothers and infants in poverty-stricken regions of the world

Breast-fed babies are much less likely to be malnourished and 6 to 14 times more likely to survive the first year of life. These practices would save the lives of more than 1 million infants annually. Offer some protection against respiratory and intestinal infections, which are devastating to young children in developing countries.

Because a nursing mother is less likely to get pregnant, breast-feeding helps increase spacing among siblings, A major factor in reducing infant and child deaths in nations with widespread poverty

52

Rapid weight gain in infancy is/is not related to obesity at older ages

Is. Recent evidence does indicate a strengthening relationship between rapid weight gain in infancy and later obesity which may be due to the rise in overweight and obesity among adults, who promote unhealthy eating habits in their young children. Most chubby babies, however, thin out during toddlerhood

53

What are three ways in which parents can prevent infants and toddlers from becoming overweight at later ages

Breast-feed for the first six months which is associated with lower weight gain over the first year and gleaner body build throughout early childhood

Avoid giving them food loaded with sugar, salt, and saturated fats

Give toddlers plenty of opportunities for energetic plate once they learn to walk climb and run

Limit the time very young children spend in front of the TV as there is a correlation between excessive television viewing and overweight in older children

54

A wasted condition of the body caused by a diet low in all essential nutrients. Usually appears in the first year of life when a baby's mother is to malnourished to produce enough breastmilk and bottlefeeding is also inadequate. Her starving baby becomes painfully thin and is in danger of dying

Marasmus

55

Caused by an unbalanced diet very low in protein. The disease usually strikes after weaning, between one and three years of age. Common in regions were children get just enough calories from starchy foods but little protein. The child's body responds by breaking down it's own protein reserves, which causes swelling and other symptoms

Kwashiorkor

56

What are the consequences of extreme malnutrition?

Low basal metabolism rate, improve diet leads to catch up growth in height but not in head size, permanent loss in brain weight, Low scores on intelligence tests, poor fine motor coordination, difficulty paying attention, intense stress response, with drawl and listlessness

57

True or false: inadequate nutrition is largely confined to developing countries, and recent surveys indicate that it is almost nonexistent in the United States and Canada

Balls, because government supported supplementary food programs do not reach all families in need, and estimated 22% of US children suffer from food insecurity, uncertain access to enough food for a healthy, active life

58

A term applied to infants whose weight, height, and head circumference are substantially below age-related growth norms and you are withdrawn and apathetic. In as many as half such cases, a disturbed parent-infant relationship contributes to this failure to grow normally

Growth faltering

59

Discuss the family circumstances that often surround growth faltering

An unhappy marriage, parental psychological disturbance, and irritable baby who displays abnormal feeding behavior such as poor sucking or vomiting that both disrupts growth and lead parents to feel anxious and helpless which stresses the parent-infant relationship further

60

Refers to changes in behavior as a result of experience

Learning

61

What are the two basic forms of learning in which infants are equipped

Classical and operant conditioning

62

Newborn reflexes making this type of learning possible in the up young infant. In this form of learning, a neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that leads to a reflexive response. Once the babies nervous system makes the connection between the two stimuli, the neutral stimulus produces the behavior by itself

Classical conditioning

63

Why is classical conditioning of great value to infants?

Helps infants recognize which events usually occur together in the everyday world, so they can anticipate what is about to happen next. As a result, the environment becomes more orderly and predictable

64

A neutral stimulus that leads to a new response once learning has occurred

Conditioned stimulus

65

A learned response exhibited toward a previously neutral stimulus

Conditioned response

66

A reflexive response

Unconditioned response

67

A stimulus that automatically leads to a reflexive response

Unconditioned stimulus

68

In classical conditioning, if the CS is presented alone enough times, without being paired with the UCS, the CR will no longer occur. This is referred to as

Extinction

69

Some responses, such as ___________, are very difficult to classically conditioned and young babies. Explain why.

Fear. Until infants have the motor skills to escape unpleasant events, they have no biological need to form these associations. After age 6 months, however, fear is easy to condition

70

With this type of learning, infants act, or operate, on the environment, and stimuli that follow their behavior change the probability that the behavior will occur again

Operant conditioning

71

A stimulus that increases the occurrence of a response.

Reinforcer. For example, sweet liquid reinforces the sucking response in newborns

72

Removing a desirable stimulus or presenting an unpleasant one to decrease the occurrence of a response is called

Punishment. A sour tasting fluid punish his newborn baby sucking response and causes them to purse their lips and stop sucking entirely

73

Describe how operant conditioning contributes to the development of social relationships

As the baby gazes into the adults eyes, the adult looks and smiles back, and then the infant looks and smiles again. As the behavior of each partner reinforces the other, both continue their pleasurable interaction

74

Refers to a gradual reduction in the strength of a response due to repetitive stimulation

Habituation

75

When a new stimulus, a change in the environment, causes responsiveness to return to a high-level, and increase called

Recovery

76

As infants get older, they habituate to stimuli more slowly/quickly. What does this indicate about their cognitive development?

Quickly, indicating that they process information more efficiently

77

Babies come into the world with a primitive ability to learn through this, by copying the behavior of another person

Imitation

78

Scientists have identified specialized cells in many areas of the cerebral cortex of primates that underlie imitation capacities. They fire identically when a primate hears or sees an action and when it carries out that action on its own

Mirror neurons

Humans have especially elaborate systems of mirror neurons, which enable us to observe another person's behavior while simulating the behavior in our own brain. They are believed to be the biological basis of a variety of interrelated, complex social abilities, including imitation, empathic sharing of emotions, and understanding of others intentions

79

Refers to control over actions that help infants get around in the environment, such as crawling, standing, and walking

Gross-motor development

80

Refers to smaller movements, such as reaching and grasping

Fine-motor development

81

True or false: although the sequence of motor development is fairly uniform, large individual differences exist in the rate of development

True

82

According to this theory, mastery of motor skills involved acquiring increasingly complex systems of action. When motor skills work as a system, separate abilities blend together, each cooperating with each other to produce more effective ways of exploring and controlling the environment

Dynamic systems theory of motor development

For example, control of the head and upper chest combine into sitting with support. Kicking, rocking on all fours, and reaching, combine to become crawling and then crawling standing in stepping are united into walking

83

List for factors that contribute to the development of each new motor skill

Central nervous system development, the bodies movement capacities, the goals the child has in mind, environmental supports for the skill

84

True or false: dynamic systems theory regards motor development as a genetically determined process. Explain your response.

Falls, it shows us why motor development cannot be genetically determined. Because it is motivated by exploration and the desire to master new tasks, heredity can map it out only add a general level. Rather than being hardwired into the nervous system, behaviors are softly assembled, allowing for different paths to the same motor skill

85

What did Galloway and Thelen's microgenetic studies reveal about infant motor development?

They held sounding toys alternately in front of infants hands and feet, from the time they first showed interest until they engaged in well coordinated reaching and grasping for. The infants violated the normative sequence of arm and hand control proceeding leg and foot control. They first explore the toys with their feet at least a month before with their hands. Because the hip joint constrains the legs to move less freely than the shoulder joint constrains the arms, infants could more easily control their leg movements. Consequently, foot reaching required far less practice then hand reaching

86

In Wayne Dennis's orphanage research, what effects did lying on their backs have on babies motor development?

Observed infants in Iranian orphanages who were deprived of the tantalizing surroundings that induce infants to acquire motor skills as they spend their days lying on their backs and cramps without toys to play with. As a result, most did not move on their own until after two years of age and when they did move the concert experience of lying on their backs led them to scoot in a sitting position rather than crawl on their hands and knees. Because babies who scoot come up against furniture with their feet and not their hands, they are far less likely to pull themselves to a standing position in preparation for walking so by 3 to 4 years of age, only 15% were walking alone

87

Give at least one example of how cultural variations in infant-rearing practices affect motor development

Among the Zinacanteco Indians of southern Mexico and the Gusii of Kenya, rapid motor progress is actively discouraged because babies who walk before they know enough to keep away from cooking fires and weaving looms are viewed as dangerous to themselves and disruptive to others

In the west Indians of Jamaica, babies hold their heads up, sit alone, and walk considerably earlier the North American infants because babies are seated in holes dug in the ground with her old blankets to keep them up right and walking is promoted by frequently standing babies and adults laps and bouncing them on their feet

88

Poorly coordinated swipes or swings toward an object

Pre-reaching

89

A clumsy motion in which the young infants fingers close against the palm

Ulnar grasp

90

A well coordinated movement in which infants use the thumb and index finger opposably

Pincer grasp

91

Explain how reaching and depth perception are related

Reaching improves as depth perception advances and as infants gain greater control of body posture and arm and hand movements

92

Does heavy enrichment lead to advanced motor development in infancy? Explain

Heavy enrichment can take its toll. Infants who are given a massive amount of visual stimulation reach sooner than unstimulated babies but they looked away and cried a great deal, and they were less advanced in reaching then the moderately stimulated group

93

At what age should parents begin toilet training their children? Why is this an appropriate age for most children?

Best delayed until the months following the second birthday, when children can consistently identify the signals from a full bladder or wrecked him and wait for the right place to open these muscles-physiological developments essential for the child to cooperate with training

94

Name three effective toilet training techniques

Establishing regular toileting routine's for example after getting up or eating or before going to bed, using gentle encouragement, and praising children for their efforts

95

What is the greatest change in hearing that takes place over the first year of life?

Babies start to organize sounds into complex patterns

96

Describe the changes in auditory perception over the first year of life that prepare infants for language acquisition

Around five months: infants display a sense of musical phrasing. They prefer Mozart minuets with pauses between phases to those with awkward breaks

6 to 8 months: can distinguish musical tunes on the basis of variations in rhythmic patterns, including beat structure and accent structure

7 to 9 months: infants recognize the same melody when it is played in different keys

97

Infants have an impressive ________ _________ _________. By analyzing the speech stream for patterns-repeatedly occurring sequences of sounds-they acquire a stock of speech structures for which they will later learn meanings, long before they start to talk around age 12 months

Statistical learning capacity

98

Describe changes in the ability to perceive familiar speech and familiar faces over the first year of life

Familiar speech: to share experiences with members of their family and community, babies must become skilled at making perceptual discriminations that are meaningful in their culture. Around six months of age infants narrow their focus, limiting the distinctions they make to language they hear and will soon learn

For Milyer faces: after habituating to one member of each pair of faces, six month old were shown that the Milyer and novel faces side-by-side. For both pairs, the recovered two or look longer at the novel face, indicating that they could discriminate the individual faces of both humans and monkeys equally well. But at nine months, infants no longer showed a novelty preference when viewing the monkey pair they can only distinguish the human faces

99

How do research findings on musical rhythm perception support the notion of a sensitive period for culture-specific learning

Western adults can easily notice rhythmic changes that disrupts the familiar western music beats but cannot pick up on rhythmic pattern deviations of other cultures music. Six month olds can detect disruptions for both Western and non-western melodies but by 12 months, after added exposure to western music, babies are no longer aware of deviations in foreign musical rhythms although their sensitivity to western rhythmic structure remains unchanged.

These findings suggest a heightened capacity or sensitive. In the second half of the first year, when babies are biologically prepared to zero in on socially meaningful perceptual distinctions

100

The ability to judge the distance of objects from one another and from ourselves. Important for understanding the layout of the environment and for guiding motor activity

Depth perception

101

Describe Gibson and walks visual cliff, and explain what their studies reveal about infant depth perception

Consists of a plexiglass covered table with a platform at the center, a shallow side with a checkerboard pattern just under the glass, and a deep side with a checkerboard several feet below the glass. The researchers found that crawling babies readily cross the shallow side, but most avoided the deep side. They concluded that around the time infants crawl, most distinguished deep from shallow surfaces and avoid drop off's

102

Name and briefly describe the three cues for depth

Motion: 3 to 4 week old babies blink their eyes defensively when an object moves toward their face and as they are carried around and people and things turn and move before their eyes, infants learn more about depth. Three months old motion has help them figure out that objects are not flat but three-dimensional

Binocular depth cues: arise because our two eyes have slightly different views of the visual field and the brain blends these two images, resulting in perception of depth

Pictorial depth cues: between five and seven months, the ones artists often used to make a painting look three-dimensional such as receding lines that create the illusion of perspective, changes in texture, overlapping objects, height in the picture plane, and shadows cast on surfaces

103

Explain what infants learn from crawling that promotes sensitivity to depth information

Crawling experience promotes other aspects of three-dimensional understanding. For example, seasoned crawlers are better than their inexperienced age mates at remembering object locations and finding hidden objects. Crawling promotes a new level of brain organization and may strengthen certain neural connections, especially those involved in vision and understanding of space

104

This general principle explains early pattern preferences. States that if infants can detect a difference in contrast between two or more patterns, they will prefer the one with more contrast

Contrast sensitivity

105

True or false: by the end of the first year, a suggestive image of a pattern is all that babies need to recognize a familiar form

True

106

Summarize the development of face perception across the first year of life

Birth to one month: although newborns respond to face like structures, they cannot discriminate a complex facial pattern from other, equally complex patterns but from repeated exposures to the mothers face, they quickly learn to prefer her face to that of an unfamiliar woman

2 to 4 months: when they can combine pattern elements into an organized whole, babies prefer a complex drawing of the human face to other equally complex stimulus arrangements and they clearly prefer their mothers detailed facial features to those of another woman
Around three months, infants readily make fine distinctions among the features of different faces

5 to 12 months: infants perceive emotional expressions as meaningful wholes they treat positive faces happy and surprised as different from negative ones sad and fearful

107

True or false: children with severe visual impairments show delays in motor, cognitive, and social development

True

108

Give two reasons why children with visual impairments reach motor milestones later then there sighted counterparts

They must rely on sound to identify the whereabouts of objects but sound does not function as a precise clue to object location until much later than vision, around the middle of the first year

Because infants who cannot see have difficulty engaging their caregivers, adults may not provide them with Rich early exposure to sounding objects and as a result the baby comes to understand relatively late that there is a world of interesting objects to explore

The babies build an understanding of location and arrangement of objects in space only after reaching and crawling. Inability to imitate the motor actions of others presents additional challenges as these children get older

109

How do severe visual impairments affect the caregiver-infant relationship

They have great difficulty evoking stimulating caregiver interaction. They cannot make eye contact, imitate, or pick up nonverbal social cues. Their emotional expressions are muted for example their smile is fleeting and unpredictable. And because they cannot gays in the same direction as a partner, they are greatly delayed in establishing a shared focus of attention on objects as the basis for play and consequently, these infants me receive little adult attention and other stimulation vital for all aspects of development. Communication is therefore compromised in early childhood

110

What are five intervention techniques that can help infants with severe visual impairments become aware of their physical and social surroundings

Heightened sensory input through combining sound and touch for example holding, touching, or bringing the babies hands to the adults face while talking or singing,
engaging in many repetitions,
and consistently reinforcing the infants efforts to make contact.
Manipulative play with objects that make sounds is also vital.
Rich language stimulation can compensate for visual loss

111

Perception of an objects size as the same, despite changes in the size of its retinal image. Evident in the first week of life

Size constancy

112

Perception of an objects shape as stable, despite changes in the shape projected on the retina

Sheep constancy. Present within the first week of life

113

True or false: size and shape constancy emerge gradually over time as infants acquire more advanced knowledge of objects in the environment

False, both size and shape constancy seem to be built-in capacities that assist babies in detecting a coherent world of objects

114

True or false: when two objects are touching, whether moving in unison or standing still, infants younger than four months of age do not perceive the boundary between the two objects, and therefore cannot distinguish them

True

115

This is simultaneous input from more than one modality or sensory system

Intermodal stimulation

116

With this type of perception, we make sense of these running streams of light, sound, tactile, older, and paste information, perceiving them as integrated wholes. We know for example, that an object's shape is the same whether we see it or touch it, that lip movements are closely coordinated with the sound of a voice, and that dropping a rigid object on a hard surface will cause a sharp banging sound

Intermodal perception

117

Information that is not specific to a single modality but that overlaps two or more sensory systems, such as rate, rhythm, duration, intensity, temporal synchrony, and texture and shape

Amodal sensory properties

118

True or false: from birth, infants are capable of combining information from multiple sensory systems. Cite research to support your answer

True, after touching an object placed in their palms, they recognize it visually, distinguishing it from a different shaped object. And they require just one exposure to learn the association between the sight and sound at the toy, such as a rhythmically jingling rattle

119

Explain how intermodal perception helps broaden the infants social world

As 3 to 4 month olds gaze at an adult's face they initially require both vocal and visual input to distinguish positive from negative emotional expressions. Only later do infants discriminate positive from negative emotion in each sensory modality, first in voices and later in faces.

120

True or false: exposure to concurrent sights, sounds, and touches is often too overwhelming for infants, hindering cognitive development. Explain your answer

False, babies process more information and learn faster when caregivers provide many concurrent sights, sounds, and touches

121

According to this theory, infants actively search for invariant features of the environment-those that remain stable-in a constantly changing perceptual world

Gibsons differentiation theory

122

According to differentiation theory, perception is guided by the discovery of _________, or the action possibilities that a situation offers an organism with certain motor capabilities

Affordances

123

Infant and toddler growth is marked by steady gains/little spurts

Little spurts