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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Terms Deck (42):
1

The transport of solute molecules across a membrane against an electrochemical gradient; it requires a carrier protein and the input of energy.

Active transport

2

A complex sulfated polysaccharaide, usually from red algae, that is used as a solidifying agent in the preparation of culture media.

Agar

3

Linked (coupled) transport in which the transported substances move in opposite directions.

Antiport

4

Transport system that uses ATP hydrolysis for nutrient uptake.

ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters)

5

Organisms that use CO2 as their sole or principal source of carbon.

Autotrophs

6

Microorganisms that use organic compounds as sources of energy, electrons, and carbon for biosynthesis. Also called chemoheterotroph and chemoorganotrophic heterotroph.

Chemoorganoheterotroph

7

Microorganisms that use reduced inorganic compounds to drive both energy and electrons; organic molecules are used as the carbon source. Also called mixotroph.

Chemolithoheterotrophs

8

Microorganisms that oxidize reduced inorganic compounds to derive both energy and electrons; CO2 is the carbon source.

Chemolithotrophic autotrophs

9

Organisms that obtain energy from the oxidation of chemical compounds.

Chemotrophs

10

An assemblage of microorganisms growing on a sold=id surface such as the surface of an agar culture medium; the assemblage often is directly visible, but also may be seen only microscopically.

Colony

11

Culture medium that contains some ingredients of unknown chemical composition.

Complex medium

12

Culture medium made with components of known composition.

Defined medium

13

Culture media that distinguish between groups of microorganisms based on differences in their growth and metabolic products.

Differential media

14

General purpose media to which special nutrients have been added (ex, blood agar).

Enriched media

15

Diffusion across the plasma membrane that is aided by a carrier protein.

Facilitated diffusion

16

A transport process in which a molecule is actively moved across a membrane by carrier proteins while being chemically altered at the same time.

Group translocation

17

Organic compounds that must be supplied in the diet for growth because thy are essential cell components or precursors of such components and cannot be synthesized.

Growth factors

18

Organisms that use reduced, performed organic molecules as their principal carbon source.

Heterotrophs

19

Organisms that use reduced inorganic compounds as their electron source.

Lithotrophs

20

Nutrients such as carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and iron. They are required by microorganisms in relatively large amounts.

Macroelements

21

Nutrients such as zinc, manganese, and copper that are required in very small quantities for growth and reproduction. Also called trace elements.

Micronutrients

22

A substance that supports growth and reproduction.

Nutrient

23

Organisms that use reduced organic compounds as their electron source.

Organotrophs

24

The process in which molecules move from a region of higher concentration to one of lower concentration as a result of random thermal agitation.

Passive diffusion

25

Water-soluble digests or hydrolysates of proteins that are use din the preparation of culture media.

Peptones

26

A membrane bound carrier protein or a system of two or more proteins that transports a substance across the membrane.

Permease

27

A shallow dish consisting of two round, overlapping halves that is used to grow microorganisms on solid culture medium; the top is larger than the bottom of the dish to prevent contamination of the culture.

Petri dish

28

Group translocation system which transports a variety of sugars while phosphorylating them, using phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) as the phosphate donor.

Phophoenolpyruvate: sugar phophotransferase system (PTS)

29

A mechanism for regulating either transcription or enzyme activity that involves the transfer of a phosphate group from one molecule to another. Covalent addition of the phosphate group to enzymes or other proteins can either activate or inhibit their activity. Examples include the phosphotransferase system (PTS) of group translocation and two-component regulatory systems.

Phosphorelay system

30

Organisms that use light energy, an inorganic electron source (ex, H2O, H2, H2S), and CO2 as their carbon source.

Photolithotrophic autotrophs

31

Organisms that use light energy, organic electron sources, and organic molecules as a carbon source.

Photooranotrophic heterotrophs

32

Organisms that use light as their energy source.

Phototrophs

33

A petri dish of solid culture medium with isolated microbial colonies growing both on its surface and within the medium which has been prepared by mixing microorganisms with cooled, still liquid medium and then allowing the medium to harden.

Pour plate

34

A population of cells that are identical because they arise from a single cell.

Pure culture

35

Culture media that favor the growth of specific microorganisms; this may be accomplished by inhibiting the growth of undesired microorganisms.

Selective media

36

Small molecules that complex with ferric iron and supply it to a cell by aiding in its transport across the plasma membrane.

Siderophores

37

A petri dish of solid culture medium with isolated microbial colonies growing on its surface, which has been prepared by spreading a dilute microbial suspension evenly over the agar surface.

Spread plate

38

A petri dish of solid culture medium with isolated microbial colonies growing on its surface, which has been prepared by spreading a microbial mixture over the agar surface, using an inoculating loop.

Streak plate

39

Culture media that are able to sustain the growth of many different kinds of microorganisms.

Supportive media

40

Linked (coupled) transport of two substances in the same direction.

Symport

41

Culture medium made with components of known composition.

Synthetic medium

42

Organic compounds required by organisms in minute quantities for growth and reproduction because it cannot be synthesized by the organism; they often serve as enzyme cofactors or parts of cofactors.

Vitamins