Chapter 5: The Integumentary System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5: The Integumentary System Deck (59):
1

Epidermis

Superficial region

2

Dermis

Middle region

3

Hypodermis

Deepest region

4

The epidermis is made up of

Stratified squamous epithelium

5

Keratinocytes produce

Fibrous protein keratin

6

Melanocytes produce

Pigmented melanin

7

Epidermal dendritic (Langerhans) cells are

Macrophages that help activate immune system

8

Tactile (Merkel) cells are

Touch receptors

9

Stratum corneum

Most superficial layer; 20-30 layers of dead cells represented only by flat membranous sacs filled with keratin. Glycolipids in extra cellular space

10

Stratum granulosum

Three to five layers of flattened cells, organelles deteriorating; cytoplasm full of lamellated granules and keratohyaline granules

11

Stratum spinosum

Several layers of keratinocytes unified by desmosomes. Cells contain thick bundles of intermediate filaments made of pre-keratin

12

Stratum basale

Deepest epidermal layer; one row of actively mitotic stem cells; some Newley formed cells become part of the more superficial layers.

13

Journey from basal layer to surface takes

25-45 days

14

Stratum spinosum

Cells contain weblike system of intermediate prekeratin filaments attached to desmosomes. Interlock to support skin

15

What layer of the epidermis initiates keratinization

Stratum granulosum

16

Is three-quarters of the epidermal thickness and protects from abrasion and penetration, waterproofs, and is a barrier against biological, chemical and physical assaults

Stratum corneum

17

Is strong, flexible connective tissue. Cells include fibroblasts, macrophages, and occasionally mast cells and white blood cells

Dermis

18

The papillary layer of the dermis is made of

Loose connective tissue

19

The reticular layer of the dermis is made of

Dense connective tissue

20

What layer of the dermis has areolar connective tissue with collagen and elastic fibers and blood vessels

Papillary layer

21

Dermal papillae contain

Capillary loops
Meissners corpuscles
Free nerve endings

22

Capillary loops do what

Nourish the epidermis

23

Meissner's corpuscles are

Sensory touch receptors

24

Free nerve endings send

Signals to the brain for touch, pain, pressure, and temperature

25

What layer of the dermis is approximately 80% of the thickness, has collagen fibers to provide strength and resiliency and elastic fibers to provide stretch-recoil properties

Reticular layer

26

Epidermal ridges lie atop deeper dermal papillary ridges to form

Friction ridges of fingerprints

27

Collagen fibers arranged in bundles form

Cleavage (tension) lines

28

What are the three pigments that contribute to skin color

1. Melanin
2. Carotene
3. Hemoglobin

29

What is sensitive to UV light and has a yellow to reddish-brown to black color and is responsible for dark skin colors

Melanin

30

Is yellow to orange and is most obvious in the palms and soles

Carotene

31

Is responsible for the pinkish hue of skin

Hemoglobin

32

What are the two main types of sweat (suboriferous) glands

Eccrine (merocrine) sweat gland and apocrine sweat glands

33

What type of sweat gland is abundant on the palms, soles and forehead; sweat 99% water; and function is thermoregulation

Eccrine ( merocrine) sweat glands

34

What sweat gland is confined to axillary and anogenital areas;

Apocrine glands

35

What is sebum

Sweat + fatty substances and proteins

36

What glands are in the external ear canal and secrete cerumen

Ceruminous glands

37

What glands secrete milk instead of sweat

Mammary glands

38

What glands are widely distributed, most develop from hair follicles, become active at puberty

Sebaceous (oil) glands

39

What alerts the body to presence of insects on the skin and guards the scalp against physical trauma, heat loss, and sunlight

Hair

40

What are the 3 parts to a hair

Medulla, cortex, cuticle

41

Is in the center of the hair and contains soft keratin and air

Medulla

42

Is the innermost thickest layer of hair and has the pigment that gives it color

Cortex

43

Is the outermost layer of a hair, has cells that overlap like scales.

Cuticle

44

What part of a hair extends from the epidermal surface into the dermis

Hair follicle

45

What part of a hair is the expanded deep end and provides nutrients

Hair bulb

46

What part of a hair follicle is stimulated when the hair is bent

Hair follicle receptor (root hair plexus)

47

The part of the hair follicle responsible for goosebumps and has smooth muscle attached to the follicle

Arrector pili

48

Is hair thinning in both sexes after the age of 40

Alopecia

49

Is a genetically determined and sex influenced condition and is caused by follicular response to DHT

True (frank) baldness

50

What are the three major types of skin cancer

1. Basal cell carcinoma
2. Squamous cell carcinoma
3. Melanoma

51

Cancer caused when stratum basale cells proliferate and slowly invade dermis and hypodermis

Basal cell carcinoma

52

Cancer that involves keratinocytes of stratum spinosum and most common on scalp, ears, lower lip, and hands

Squamous cell carcinoma

53

Cancer than involves melanocytes and is highly metastatic and resistant to chemotherapy

Melanoma

54

A burn with epidermal damage only and has localized redness, edema, and pain

First degree

55

A burn that causes epidermal and upper dermal damage. Blisters appear

Second degree burn

56

Burn where entire thickness of skin is damaged

Third degree

57

Covering of delicate hairs in 5th and 6th month of pregnancy

Lanugo coat

58

Sebaceous gland secretion that protects skin of fetus

Vernix caseosa

59

Skin consist of three major regions

Epidermis
Dermis
Hypodermics