Chapter 6: Bones and Skeletal Tissues Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6: Bones and Skeletal Tissues Deck (67):
1

A type of skeletal cartilage that provides support, flexibility, and resilience. Is the most abundant type

Hyaline cartilage

2

Is a type of skeletal cartilage that is similar to hyaline cartilages but contain elastic fibers

Elastic cartilages

3

Type of skeletal cartilage that has collagen fibers that have great tensile strength

Fibrocartilages

4

Cells that secrete matrix against the external face of existing cartilage

Appositional

5

Chondrocytes divide and secrete new matrix, expanding cartilage from within

Interstitial

6

Calcification of cartilage occurs during

Normal bone growth and old age

7

Are the two main groups of bones

Axial and appendicular

8

Is a bone marking That has a rounded projection

Tuberosity

9

Is a bone marking that has a narrow, prominent ridge

Crest

10

Is a bone marking that has a sharp, slender projection

Spine

11

Is a projection that helps form a joint. Is a bony expansion carried on a narrow neck

Head

12

Bone marking: depressions and openings

A cavity within a bone

Sinus

13

Bone markings: depressions and openings


Round or oval opening through a bone

Foramen

14

A bone that has a dense outer layer

Compact bone

15

A bone that has honeycomb of trabeculae

Spongy (cancellous) bone

16

Structure of long bones:

The diaphysis is the what of a bone

Shaft

17

Structure of long bone:


Compact bone collar surrounds what

Medullary (marrow) cavity

18

Structure of long bone:


Medullary cavity in adults contains...

Fat(yellow marrow)

19

Structure of long bones:

Has expanded ends, spongy bone interior, epiphyseal line, and articulate (hyaline) cartilage on joint surfaces

Epiphyses

20

Membranes of bones:

Has an outer fibrous layer and an inner osteogenic layer

Periosteum

21

Are bone forming cells

Osteoblasts

22

Are bone destroying cells

Osteoclasts

23

Are bone stem cells

Osteogenic cells

24

Nerve fibers, nutrient blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels enter the bone via...

Nutrient foramina

25

Is a delicate membrane on internal surfaces of bone that also contain osteoblasts and osteoclasts

Endosteum

26

Covers compacts bone on the outside

Periosteum

27

Covers spongy bone within

Endosteum

28

Spongy bone is called what is flat bones

Diploe

29

Red marrow cavities of adults are located

In trabecular cavities of the headed of the femur and humerus. Trabecular cavities of the diploe of flat bones

30

Red marrow of newborn infants is located in

Medullary cavities and all spaces in spongy bone

31

Are stem cells in periosteum and endosteum that give rise to osteoblasts

Osteogenic (osteoprogenitor) cells

32

Part of bone that contains blood vessels and nerves

Central (Haversian) canals

33

Are weight-bearing, column like matrix tubes

Lamellae

34

Are at right angles to central canal and connects blood vessels and nerves of the periosteum and central canal

Perforating (Volkmann's) canals

35

Are small cavities that contain osteocytes

Lacunae

36

Hairlike canals that connect lacunae to each other and the central canal

Canaliculi

37

Part of spongy bone that align along lines of stress, have no osteons, contain irregularly arranged lamellae, osteocytes, and canaliculi; capillaries in endosteum supply nutrients

Trabeculae

38

An organic bone matrix secreted by osteoblasts

Osteoid

39

Inorganic part of bone, 65% of bone by mass, mainly calcium phosphate crystals, responsible for hardness and resistance to compression

Hydroxyapatites (mineral salts)

40

The process of bone tissue formation

Osteogenesis (ossification)

41

The stages of osteogenesis are

1. Bone formation
2. Postnatal bone growth
3. Bone remodeling and repair

42

What type of cartilages contain no blood vessels or nerves

Skeletal cartilages

43

Membrane bone develops from fibrous membrane and forms flat bones

Intramembranous ossification

44

Cartilage (endochondral) bone forms by replacing hyaline cartilage and forms most of the rest of the skeleton

Endochondral ossification

45

Uses hyaline cartilage models and requires breakdown of hyaline cartilage prior to ossification

Endochondral ossification

46

Increase length of long bones is called

Interstitial growth

47

Increase thickness and remodeling of all bones by osteoblasts and osteoclasts on bone surfaces is

Apposition all growth

48

Epiphyseal plate cartilage organizes into four important functional zones...

1. Proliferation(growth)
2. Hypertrophic
3. Calcification
4. Ossification (osteogenic)

49

What stimulates epiphyseal plate activity

Growth hormone

50

What modulates activity of growth hormone

Thyroid hormone

51

What promotes adolescent growth spurts and ends growth by inducing epiphyseal plate closure

Testosterone and estrogens

52

Occurs when bone is injured or added strength is needed

Bone deposit

53

Sites of new matrix deposit are revealed by the...

Osteoid seam and calcification front

54

Is an unmineralized band of matrix

Osteoid Seam

55

The abrupt transition zone between the osteoid seam and the older mineralized bone

Calcification front

56

Osteoclasts secrete what

Lysosomal enzymes and acids

57

What controls continual remodeling of bone

Hormonal mechanisms that maintain calcium homestasis In the blood and mechanical and gravitational forces

58

What is necessary for transmission of nerve impulses, muscle contraction, blood coagulation, secretion by glands and nerve cells and cell division

Calcium

59

A bone grows or remodels itself in response to forces or demands placed upon it

Wolff's Law

60

Stages in healing of a bone fracture are

1. Hematoma forms
2. Fibrocattilaginous callus forms
3. Bony callus formation
4. Bone remodeling

61

What stage in healing of a bone fracture:

Torn blood vessels hemorrhage
Clot forms
Site becomes swollen, painful, and inflamed

Hematoma forms

62

What stage of healing of bone fracture:

Phagocytic cells clear debris
Osteoblasts begin forming spongy bone
Fibroblasts secrete collagen fibers to connect bone ends

Fibrocartilaginous callus forms

63

What stage of the healing of a bone fracture:

New trabecular form a bony callus

Bony callus formation

64

What stage is the healing of a bone fracture:

Final structure resembles original

Bone remodeling

65

Childhood Disease that causes bowed legs and other bone deformations

Rickets

66

Loss of bone mass-bone resorption outpaces deposit, spongy bone of spine and neck of femur become most susceptible to fracture

Osteoporosis

67

Excessive and haphazard bone formation and breakdown, usually in spine, pelvis, femur, or skull. Has very high ratio of spongy bone to compact bone and reduced mineralization

Paget's disease