Flashcards in CHAPTER 5: WHEAT FLOUR Deck (411)
Is wheat a cereal grain?
Name four other cereal grains.
Corn (maize), oats, rice and rye.
Widespread consumption of cereal grains began when and where?
Middle East about 10,000 years ago, when agriculture first began. It was then that wheat was first planted and cultivated.
Are thousands of different wheat varieties grown throughout the world?
What parts of North America have ideal conditions for wheat?
Midwest and southern prairie region of Canada.
Name four other major wheat growing countries.
China (more than everyone), India, France, and Russia.
Most popular cereal grain used in baked goods.
Where does wheat's popularity stem from?
The gluten that forms when flour is mixed with water. Also preferred for its mild, nutty flavor.
Are wheat kernels seeds of the wheat plant?
What part of the wheat plant is illdd into flour?
Are cereal grains in the grass family?
When a field of wheat starts to grow what does it look like?
A lawn of grass.
Three main parts of a wheat kernel.
Endosperm, germ and bran.
What is white flour milled from?
Why is wheat flour considered a whole wheat product?
It contains the entire wheat kernel.
What makes up the largest part of a wheat kernel?
Endosperm is about 80%.
Why is endosperm so white?
Because it contains mostly starch, around 70 to 75%.
The starch of an endosperm is tightly packed into starch granules, which are embedded in what?
Chunks of protein.
Two important proteins in the endosperm are what?
Glutenin and gliadin.
Wheat is the only cereal grain that contains sufficient what? For what?
Glutenin and gliadin for good quality formation of gluten in bread making.
What is the embryo of the wheat plant?
What part of the wheat plant germinates given the right conditions?
How much of the kernel is made up of wheat germ?
What percent of protein is the germ?
Wheat germ is high in protein and...
fat, B vitamins, vitamin E and minerals; all important to the germ as it sprouts.
Does germ protein form gluten?
Can wheat germ be purchased and added to goods?
How is wheat germ typically sold?
What does toasting do to wheat germ?
Adds a nutty flavor and destroys enzymes called lipases, present in wheat germ that break down oils and cause them to oxidize.