Flashcards in CHAPTER 5: WHEAT FLOUR Deck (411):
Is wheat a cereal grain?
Name four other cereal grains.
Corn (maize), oats, rice and rye.
Widespread consumption of cereal grains began when and where?
Middle East about 10,000 years ago, when agriculture first began. It was then that wheat was first planted and cultivated.
Are thousands of different wheat varieties grown throughout the world?
What parts of North America have ideal conditions for wheat?
Midwest and southern prairie region of Canada.
Name four other major wheat growing countries.
China (more than everyone), India, France, and Russia.
Most popular cereal grain used in baked goods.
Where does wheat's popularity stem from?
The gluten that forms when flour is mixed with water. Also preferred for its mild, nutty flavor.
Are wheat kernels seeds of the wheat plant?
What part of the wheat plant is illdd into flour?
Are cereal grains in the grass family?
When a field of wheat starts to grow what does it look like?
A lawn of grass.
Three main parts of a wheat kernel.
Endosperm, germ and bran.
What is white flour milled from?
Why is wheat flour considered a whole wheat product?
It contains the entire wheat kernel.
What makes up the largest part of a wheat kernel?
Endosperm is about 80%.
Why is endosperm so white?
Because it contains mostly starch, around 70 to 75%.
The starch of an endosperm is tightly packed into starch granules, which are embedded in what?
Chunks of protein.
Two important proteins in the endosperm are what?
Glutenin and gliadin.
Wheat is the only cereal grain that contains sufficient what? For what?
Glutenin and gliadin for good quality formation of gluten in bread making.
What is the embryo of the wheat plant?
What part of the wheat plant germinates given the right conditions?
How much of the kernel is made up of wheat germ?
What percent of protein is the germ?
Wheat germ is high in protein and...
fat, B vitamins, vitamin E and minerals; all important to the germ as it sprouts.
Does germ protein form gluten?
Can wheat germ be purchased and added to goods?
How is wheat germ typically sold?
What does toasting do to wheat germ?
Adds a nutty flavor and destroys enzymes called lipases, present in wheat germ that break down oils and cause them to oxidize.
What wheat gym contribute to the structure of baked goods?
Why is wheat germ typically added as an ingredient?
Its nutritional value.
Why store wheat germ in the refrigerator?
It's high in polyunsaturated oils that oxidize easily.
What is the bran?
Protective outer layer covering the wheat kernel.
Is the bran usually darker than the endosperm?
Yes, much darker; white wheat, which has a lighter color, is also available.
What is bran high in?
Bran is about what percent fiber? What kind of fiber?
42% insoluble fiber.
Percentage of protein in bran.
Is bran high in protein, fat, vitamins and minerals?
Do bran protein form gluten?
Do wheat germ and bran interfere with gluten development?
How can whet bran be purchased?
As small flakes.
Does bran change during the baking process?
While it may soften slightly, bran remains relatively unchanged.
Is bran a moistener or a drier?
Besides nutritional value, what does bran add to baking?
A dark, rustic appearance and distinct nutty flavor.
Are dark colored products all whole grain?
Not necessarily. often, molasses or caramel coloring is added to baked goods to give them a heartier look.
Do products like seven-grain bread or stone-ground flour guarantee a whole grain product?
What is dietary fiber?
Plant matter that humans cannot digest. Classified as soluble of insoluble.
What is soluble fiber?
Fiber that will thicken or form a gel when placed in water.
What is insoluble fiber?
Fiber that will sink or float in water but remains essentially unchanged because it does not absorb what.
What does insoluble fiber do for the body?
Improves intestinal health and is thought to reduce the risks of certain cancers.
What does soluble fiber do for the body?
Lowers blood cholesterol and can reduce the risk of heart disease.
Do fibrous foods have a fibrous texture?
How are proteins fibrous but not?
There fibers consist of fully digestible proteins and are not dietary fiber.
Is cocoa powder a source of fiber?
White flour contains mostly what?
Does bread flour, considered lower in starch than regular flour, contain mostly starch?
Are some starch granules damaged during the milling process? How does relate to amylase and fermentation?
Yes, they are also damage when stored under damp conditions. When this happens, starch can be broken down by the enzyme amylase into sugars that are readily fermented by yeast.
The amount of sugar naturally present in flour as a %?
Less than 0.5%.
Is the amount of naturally accruing sugar in flour enough for yeast fermentation?
Rarely, which is why most yeast dough formulas include at least some sugar or source of amylase.
Flour is made up mostly of what two things?
Starch and protein.
Starch makes up the bulk of flour. It's usually between what percentage?
68 to 76%
Chunks of proteins usually make up what % of flour?
6 to 18%
What acts as the cement that holds starch granules together in the endosperm?
Chunks of protein.
Glutenin and gliadin make up what % of protein in the endosperm?
Besides protein and starch, what else is in flour?
14% moisture, 2% gums, 1% lipids and 0.5% ash.
What other proteins (besides gluten in and gliadin) are found in white flour?
Enzymes such as amylase, protease and lipase.
Moisture in flour typically ranges in what %?
11 to 14%
What happens when moisture content in flour rises above 14%?
Flour is susceptible to fungus and mold growth, flavor changes, enzyme activity, and insect infestation.
How must flour be stored?
Covered in a cool, dry place.
Other carbohydrates in flour besides starch include what? What's their %?
Gums are between 2 and 3%, primarily pentosans.
Why are pentosans an important part of white flour?
They are present in relatively low levels but make a large contribution to water absorption; absorb 10x their weight in water. They also increase the viscosity or consistency or consistency of batters and doughs.
What happens if you have large amounts of pentosan?
They result in a lower volume of baked goods.
Is pentosan a good source of soluble fiber?
Percentage of lipids.
1 to 1.5%
Are lipids in flour important for proper gluten development?
Is stale flour dangerous?
No, it just has a distinct cardboard flavor.
What is ash composed of?
Inorganic matter--mineral salts--naturally present in wheat kernels.
Besides providing minerals, ash increases what? How?
Yeast fermentation by contributing minerals to yeast.
Does ash have a grey color that is carried over to flour?
What % of flour is ash?
Less than 0.6%
Where is ash concentrated?
The bran layer.
How is ash measured in white flour?
Burning flour and grain samples at a very high temp--over 1,000ºF (538ºC)--and weighing the remains.
What is present in white flour that gives it the creamy, off-white color?
Carotenoid pigments present in extremely low amounts (1-4 parts per million).
Is carotenoid in the same family as beta-carotene?
Yes, the orange pigment for carrots.
Bakers generally classify wheat by what?
The hardness of the kernel, that is, whether it feels hard or soft to the touch.
Hard whet kernels are high in what?
Soft wheat kernels are low in what?
As the amount of protein in flour increases, what happens to starch?
Why do hard wheat kernels feels harder than soft ones?
Protein in these kernels forms large, hard chunks that hold tightly to starch granules.
Are hard wheat kernels generally higher in carotenoids and water-grabbing pentosans?
Carotenoid pigments provide a creamy, off-white color to what?
What type of flour forms high-quality gluten?
Hard wheat flours.
Because they form strong gluten, hard wheat flours are considered what?
What is said about strong flours water absorption mixing time to develop gluten?
They usually have a high water-absorption value and require a longer mixing time to fully develop, but they are tolerant of over-mixing.
Besides hardness of the kernel, how else can wheat be classified?
Its botanical species, the time of year it's planted or grown, or by the color of the kernel.
Six major classes of wheat in the US are described as what?
Hard red winter, soft red winter, hard red spring, hard white, soft white, and durum.
Except for durum (Triticum durum), most wheats milled in the North America are what?
Varieties of so-called common wheat (Triticum aestivum).
Can the quality of flour within any of the categories vary greatly? Explain.
Yes. In particular, geographic, climatic, and soil variation affect composition and quality of wheat.
Why do millers typically blend flours from different regions?
To provide consistent product year after year.
Do strong flours require more mixing to fully develop gluten?
Are flours milled from soft wheat kernels whiter and finer to the touch than hard wheat flour?
Strong flours are typically used for what?
Yeast-raised products, such as breads, rolls, croissants, and Danish.
Why do soft wheat flours tend to pack together when squeezed and don't flow or dust a bench easily?
Because they are so much finer than hard wheat.
Do soft wheat flours typically form weak gluten that tears easily?
Soft wheat flours are sometimes called what?
Weak flour is desirable for what?
Many cakes, cookies and pastries.
Can wheat and other cereal grains be milled into many different forms? Examples.
Yes, from very fine flour to cracked or whole kernels.
Do small, fine particles absorb water faster than larger ones?
Do whole cracked kernels and coarse meals and flakes often require soaking or gentle heating before use?
Yes, to allow for proper absorption and softening.
Why are larger kernels good for diabetics?
It takes the longer to be broken down by the body; easier to control blood glucose levels.
Flours by definition are what?
Grains milled to a relatively fine granulation size.
Do all flour have the same granulation? Example.
No, soft wheat flours are usually ground finer than hard wheat because the softness of their kernels allows it.
Are granular products coarser than flour?
Can granular products be whole grain?
Yes, like flour, if they are milled from the whole kernel, or not, if milled from the endosperm.
Two examples of granular wheat products.
Semolina and farina.
What is coarsely ground from the endosperm of hard red wheat, farina or semolina?
What is Cream of Wheat an example of?
Durum semolina is coarsely ground from what?
Endosperm of durum wheat.
Because durum semolina is yellow in cooler, it's often mistaken for what?
Can grains be purchased as whole kernels? What are they generally called?
Yes, wheat berries.
What do whole kernels add to bread?
Contrasting crunchy texture and visual appeal.
Do millers often put small amounts of additives in flour?
Are the types and amounts of additives strictly regulated by the gov't?
Yes, by law, millers must label flour with the additives it contains.
Are some additives required by law?
Why is white flour enriched?
Bran and germ are removed from the endosperm during the milling process; several vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, protein and fat are removed. Enrichment replaces certain vitamins and minerals that were lost.
What is not given back during the enrichment process?
Dietary fiber in the bran, protein in the germ.
When did flour enrichment begin? What did it eliminate?
In the early 1940s after gov't surveys found that high incidence of disease was caused by certain vitamin and mineral deficiencies. This virtually eliminated two of these diseases, beriberi and pellagra.
Do the US and Canada periodically evaluate nutritional needs? What happened in 1990? Why?
Yes, and they found that folic acid needed to be added; Folic acid prevents certain birth defects, including spine bifida, and can reduce the risk of coronary heart disease.
What vitamins and minerals are added to white flour?
Iron and B vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid) in amounts greater than or equal to whole wheat flour. Certain other vitamins and minerals are optional.
Essentially, are all baked goods and pasta products made from white flour in North America enriched?
Natural aging occurs when freshly milled green flour is exposed to what?
Air for several weeks.
Why does air do to flour?
First, it whitens flour. Second, it strengthens the gluten that forms from flour.
In naturally aging flour, what is added?
The active ingredient in air is what?
Oxygen, which is considered an oxidizing agent.
How does oxygen change the color of flour?
Oxygen oxidizes the carotenoid pigment in flour, changing their chemical structure and whitening them.
How does oxygen strengthen gluten?
Maturing agents that strengthen gluten simulate natural aging; they oxidize portions of glutenin and gliadin molecules, altering them so that more bonds form when gluten forms.
Why are yeast doughs made with aged flour easier to handle than those made with green flour?
Doughs with stronger gluten are less sticky and less likely to tear when stretched.
What happens to the final product when bread is made with a stronger gluten?
It yields a finer crumb and more volume.
Disadvantages of natural aging.
First, it requires time, often several weeks or months; flour takes up valuable silo space and isn't paying the bills. Plus it's likely to support mold growth or become infested with insects. It's also inconsistent, and not as effective as many chemical bleaching and maturing agents.
Naturally aged flours are often labeled what?
What are maturing agents?
Additives that change the baking properties of flours.
Who adds maturing agents?
The miller or are found in many dough conditioners by the baker.
Do all maturing agents strengthen gluten?
No, some weaken it.
Why can the term "maturing agent" be confusing?
It is used to describe additives that have completely opposite functions.
Do potassium bromate and ascorbic acid strengthen or weaken gluten?
What amount of maturing agents are needed to get desired changes?
A small amount, only a few parts per million.
When potassium bromate is added to flour, it is said to be what?
What's the standard against which all other maturing agents are judged?
How long has potassium bromate been around?
Since the early 1900s.
Why is potassium bromate no longer allowed as a flour additive in Canada and Europe? What's up with the US?
PB is considered a carcinogen because it has been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals. While still approved in the US, it's slowly diminishing, and much lower levels are added today than previously.
In California, what maturing agent must carry a warning label?
What's another name for ascorbic acid?
Is ascorbic acid one of the most popular maturing agents?
It is becoming one because of potassium bromates decreased usage even though it's not as effective.
Do bleaching agents whiten carotenoids?
Name two common flour bleaching agents.
Benzoyl peroxide and chlorine gas.
Why is benzoyl peroxide used in all types of flour?
It's extremely effective at whitening and produces no maturing effects.
Benzoyl peroxide is commonly used in what types of flour?
bread, high-gluten, AP, cake and pastry flours that are bleached.
Chlorine is used in what flour?
Cake flour only.
Why is chlorine great with cake flour?
It improves baking properties of soft wheat flour by substantially weakening gluten and by allowing starch to absorb water more quickly and easily.
Can you always tell whether flour has been bleached on the label? What can't you tell?
Yes, but you can't necessarily tell what bleaching agent was used. Ask the manufacturer if you would like to know.
Explain why using maturing agents to strengthen gluten is a good thing - be detailed.
The more bonds there are, the stronger, drier, and more cohesive a dough. When gas expands during final proof and the oven spring, the stronger gluten stretches better without breaking. Loaf volume is higher and grain is less coarse.
Are many maturing agents more effective than natural aging?
For the most part, do maturing agents that strengthen also whiten flour?
No, they mostly don't.
Do potassium bromate and bromate replacers work at different times in baking? How does this affect commercial dough conditioners?
Yes, this is why commercial dough conditioners often contain a combination of maturing agents to strengthen dough throughout the process.
When does potassium bromate usually work?
During final proof and oven spring.
Do some maturing agents work during the mixing process?
When does ascorbic acid work?
Consistently throughout bread production, just not as effective as potassium bromate.
Does the source of amylase matter in baked bread?
The source of amylase--more specifically alpha-amylase--added by the miller makes a surprising difference in the quality of baked bread.
Why does the source of amylase matter in bread making?
Not all amylase is alike. Different amylase enzymes are inactivated at different oven temperatures. Since amylase can have its greatest activity on bread dough during baking, its heat stability is extremely important.
True or False: Since amylase can have its greatest activity on bread during baking, its heat stability is extremely important.
When is fungal amylase inactivated? When is this good? Does it help bread staling?
Typically before starch granules gelatinize, which is when the granules are most susceptible to action. If the only reason for amylase is to improve fermentation, it is acceptable, even desirable, for amylase to stop working early on. However, the enzyme will not have enough time to break down enough starch and slow bread staling.
When were early versions of bacterial amylase inactivated? Why would this be an issue?
Very late in baking, or sometimes not at all. With these enzymes, starch breakdown could be so extensive that bread became gummy.
When are newer versions of bacterial amylase inactivated? Do they make bread gummy and stale?
Temperatures that are intermediate to fungal amylase and early versions of bacterial amylase. They provide an appropriate breakdown that delays staling without gumminess.
Does chlorine, potassium bromate and ascorbic acid do different things to gluten? Explain.
Yes, chlorine weakens gluten while potassium bromate and ascorbic acid are maturing agents that strengthen it.
What does amylase do to starch in bread dough?
Breaks it down into sugar and other products.
Why is the breaking down of bread dough starch a good thing?
It creates food for yeast fermentation, increases browning, and slows staling.
During fermentation, amylase acts on available starch, primarily starch from _______ _________?
Does amylase activity increase or decrease during baking when starch granules gelatinize and become more susceptible to its action?
When does enzyme activity stop?
When amylase is inactivated by the heat.
Does white flour contain amylase?
Yes, but it's typically too low to be of much benefit.
How is the amylase deficient in white flour fixed?
The miller sometimes adds amylase to the flour in either bacterial or fungi form.
If amylase is not added by the miller, what list of ingredients can a baker add instead?
Malted flour, diastatic malt syrup, untoasted soy flour, or any number of dough conditioners that contain amylase.
Malted flours can be thought of as what?
Flours with active amylase activity.
Can any grain be malted?
Most common grain made into malted flour.
Malted barley flour is often referred to as what?
Malted flour or, more simply, malt.
Certain brands of flour are sold with added malted barley flour but what can you do if it's not added?
Purchase dry malt flour separately and add it to yeast dough at around 0.25 - 0.50 percent (baker's percentage).
Malt syrups are also called what?
Can malted wheat and malted rye flours be used as well?
How are malted wheat and malted rye flours different from malted barley?
Flavor and enzyme activity.
Can dried malt syrups be used to increase amylase?
What is malting?
To malt means to sprout or germinate whole grain kernels under controlled conditions, as one might sprout beans or seeds.
Malted grains are used in ______ _________ as well as in baking.
Three main steps for malting grains for flour.
Steeping, germination, and drying.
How are grains steeped, germinated and dried? Explain the process.
They're gently stirred in a tank of cool water, After gaining close to half their weight in water, the swollen kernels are transferred to a flat bed to germinate. Germinating kernels produce a mix of enzymes, including proteases, which break down proteins, as well as amylase. After about 4 or 5 days germinating in a cool, humid environment, sprouted kernels are transferred to an oven and gently dried to their original moisture (less than 14%). This stop germination but leaves the active enzymes intact. The final step is to grind the dried malted kernels into flour.
*Malt powder comes in forms, what are they?
Diastatic and nondiastatic.
What is diastatic malt?
Diastatic malt contains enzymes that break down starch into sugar; this is the form bakers add to bread dough to help the dough rise and create a good crust.
What is nondiastatic malt?
Nondiastatic malt has no active enzymes and is used primarily for flavor, mostly in beverages. It sometimes contains sugar, coloring agents, and other additives.
Dough conditioners are also called what?
What do dough conditioners look like?
They are off-white, dry, granular products that look similar to flour.
Dough conditioners are used in the production of what products?
Why do dough conditioners perform many functions?
They are a mix of ingredients.
When are dough conditioners particularly useful?
When good gluten development is necessary for high volume and a fine crumb, especially when flour quality is poor or dough undergoes rigorous conditions.
What would qualify as rigorous conditions for dough?
Large-scale bakery operations have dough that gets rough-handled in automated equipment. Freezing could also damage gluten structure because of ice crystals.
Bakeries often rely on dough conditioners to reduce and eliminate what?
Reduce mixing and eliminate bulk fermentation.
While many brands of dough conditioners are available, most contain a mixture of the following ingredients.
Emulsifiers, such as DATEM and calcium stearoyl-2-lactate; salts and acids, such as calcium carbonate or mono calcium phosphate; maturing agents that strengthen such as potassium bromate, ascorbic acid, potassium iodate, and azodicarbonamide (ADA); yeast foods, such as ammonium salts; enzymes, such as amylase; reducing agents, such as L-cystein.
What does DATEM stand for?
Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono-and diglycerides.
What do DATEM and stearoyl-2-lactylate accomplish?
These emulsifiers increases water absorption and gluten strength.
What do salts and acids do for dough?
Optimize gluten development by adjusting water hardness and pH.
What does calcium carbonate do for dough?
Increases both water hardness and pH.
What does monocalcium phosphate do for dough?
Increases water hardness while decreasing pH.
Monocalcium phosphate, an acid salt, is also present in many _____ ________.
What do ammonium salt provide for dough?
Improve yeast fermentation.
What does amylase provide for dough?
Improved yeast fermentation, browning and prevent staling.
What do reducing agents, such as L-cystein, do for dough?
They break or block bonds in gluten; increase the extensibility and reduce strength of doughs--the opposite of maturing agents.
How can pizza dough benefit from L-cysteine?
L-cysteine helps it stretch and handle easily, and doesn't shrink.
What happens if you use too much of the dough conditioner?
Too much of a good thing yields poor texture and volume--and can be illegal. The US and Canada regulate many of the additives present in dough conditioners.
What is vital wheat gluten?
A dry powder that contains high amounts, about 75%, of protein that is vital, that is, protein that forms gluten when mixed with water.
What does vital wheat gluten look like?
It is purchased as a creamy yellow powder.
What is VWG added to? Why?
Yeast-raised doughs to improve flour quality, to increase mixing and fermentation tolerances, for a finer crumb, and improving volume.
What else is needed in the addition of VWG to a formula? What does it accomplish?
An increase in water for full hydration. This additional water and the higher volume achieved with added gluten can extend shelf life by keeping the bread softer longer.
What happens if you add too much VWG?
Too much gluten can make a product tough and chewy.
What is the whitest part of a kernel?
Endosperm, part that's used for white flour and contains all the gluten forming proteins. No wonder that commercial grades of white flour are defined by how much is pure endosperm.
Flour that's very high in endosperm much be milled very carefully which makes it what?
Why are high-endosperm flours so white?
They are relatively low in bran and germ impurities.
Flour milling has two main objectives.
First, it is a process that separates the endosperm from bran and germ. Second, it involves grinding the grain to fine flour.
Ideally, does milling try to separate as much endosperm as possible without damaging starch granules?
Yes, but this is difficult to do.
Commercial milling operations only extract how much flour for every hundred pounds?
72lbs on average, even though the endosperm makes up 85% of the wheat kernel.
How flour is milled. First step.
First, milling operation cleans kernels, to remove dirt, weed seeds, stones and other debris.
How flour is milled. 2nd step.
Second, they temper the kernels by adjusting moisture content. Tempering toughens the bran and makes the germ more pliable, so the endosperm is easily separated from the bran and germ.
How flour is milled. 3rd step.
Third, they break or crush the kernels between corrugated rollers, loosening chunks of endosperm from the bran and germ.
How flour is milled. 4th step.
They separate, or purify the endosperm from the bran and the germ, using sieves and air currents. The resulting farina-size endosperm chunks are called middlings.
How flour is milled. 5th step.
Grinds the endosperm middlings into flour between a series of smooth, reduction rollers.
How many times are the last three operations of milling repeated? Why?
Several times to produce streams of flour in which each progressive stream contains less endosperm and more bran and germ impurities than the last.
What happens after the last three steps of milling are repeated several times?
The streams are selectively combined and sifted to produce commercial grades of flour. The flour is then naturally aged or treated with bleaching and maturing agents.
So-called "high quality" flours (high in endosperm) are lacking in what?
Traditional way for manufacturers to confirm the grade of flour?
Measure the ash since wheat bran is naturally high in it.
Is ash content also affected by wheat variety and soil conditions?
Yes, but ash still provides some indication of the amount of bran in the flour and, therefore, the flours commercial grade.
What is patent flour?
The highest quality of all commercial grades of white flour.
Are most bread, pastry and cakes flours today patent grade?
How is patent flour made? Is it the lowest in ash?
By combining the first few streams of flour from the milling process. It consists of the inner most part of the endosperm and is essentially bran and germ free. This makes it the lowest in ash and whitest in color.
Are there different grades of patent flour? Why?
Yes, depending on which streams of flour milling process are blended.
The highest-quality patent flour is called what?
Extra short or fancy patent.
What is clear flour?
The lowest quality of all commercial grades of flour.
Where is clear flour milled from?
The outer part of the endosperm, made from flour streams that remain after patent flour is produced.
Are there different grades of clear flour? Are they high in bran? Color?
While different grades are available, all clear flours are relatively high in bran, high in protein and ash, and slightly gray in color.
What's a high grade of clear flour called?
Most clear flour sold to bakers is what? Protein content?
First clear from hard wheat flour and typically has a protein content of 13-15%
Is clear flour less expensive than patent flour?
Gluten quality in clear vs patent flour.
While it is higher in total protein than patent flour, the gluten formed from clear flour if typically of lesser quality than that from patent flour.
First clear is commonly added to what? Why?
Rye and whole grain breads. Its protein adds much needed strength to low-gluten grains, while its slightly gray cast is hidden by the dark color of rye or whole grain.
Lower, darker grades of clear flour are used for what?
Vital wheat gluten.
How did patent flour get its name?
Traditional gristmills of the mid 1800s had difficulty milling the hard kernels of Midwestern and Canadian spring wheat. Eventually, a Frenchman name LaCroix developed a purifier, which improved the yield and quality of white flour, that hard spring wheat was more easily milled into white flour. In 1856 the US patent office granted a patent for the purifier. This was followed by hundreds more patents for refining white flour. These new patented processes--used in the mills of Minnesota--revolutionized the milling industry. Consumer demand rose both in America and Europe, and the center of the milling industry moved from Eastern cities to the upper Midwest, which became an internationally renowned center of milling. Today, the term patent flour still refers to highly purified white flour.
What is straight flour milled from?
The entire endosperm.
How is straight flour made?
Combining all usable streams of flour from the milling process and contains bran and germ particles that are not easily separated from the endosperm.
Do Americans use straight flour?
Not commonly used in North America but French bakers use a type of it in breads.
Most flours purchased by bakers are what type of flour?
Are there many different types of patent wheat flours? Why?
Yes, some of these differences are due to the type of wheat being used, others occur because of differences in milling practices or additives.
Bread flour is milled from what?
Either hard red spring or hard red winter wheat.
Is bread flour high in protein? How much?
Yes, typically 11.5 - 13.5% protein.
What is high protein essential for in bread?
High volume and fine crumb in yeast-raised baked goods.
Why is it more difficult to bring bread flour?
Because it's from hard wheat kernels.
Why is bread flour coarser in texture than pastry flour and contain a higher percentage of broken and fragmented starch granules?
Because it is from hard wheat kernels.
What absorbs more water, damaged starch granules or intact granules?
Damaged, which is generally considered desirable in bread making.
Damaged granules are more susceptible than intact ones to breakdown by amylase. Why is this good for yeast?
This makes more sugar available to yeast for fermentation into carbon dioxide gas and alcohol.
Can bread flour be purchased bleached or unbleached?
Does bread flour sometimes contain added malted barley flour? Why?
Yes, to provide for better yeast fermentation, dough handling, and shelf life.
Bread flour is typically used for what?
Pan breads, rolls, croissants and sweet yeast doughs.
High gluten flour is milled from what?
Hard wheat, generally hard spring wheat.
How much protein is in high gluten flour?
13.5 - 14.5% protein
HGF typically has what added for even stronger gluten?
Potassium bromate or a bromate replacer.
Why do HGF require a high amount of water to form acceptable dough?
Because of their high protein content and the high degree of damaged starch granules during milling.
Like bread flour, is HGF sometimes bleached and contain added malted flour?
HGF is almost exclusively used for what?
Yeast-raised baked goods, particularly those requiring maximum strength and structure.
Use HGF for what?
Bagels, hearth breads, thin crust pizzas and hard rolls.
Do not confuse HGF with what?
Vital wheat gluten, which looks like flour but is best thought of as a flour additive.
Why shouldn't you overuse HGF?
Product will become to tough and chewy.
Artisan bread flour is milled from what?
Hard red winter wheat, resembles French flour in its characteristics.
Artisan bread flour protein %.
11.5 - 12.5%
What does the lower protein content of Artisan bread flour provide?
A crisper crust and a crumb with desirable irregular holes.
Despite having low protein, why must the protein in Artisan bread flour be high?
High-quality protein forms gluten with a good balance between strength and extensibility. If gluten is poor, it tears as dough is stretched, and the dough collapses from the rigors of a long fermentation.
Does Artisan bread flour have higher ash content than patent flour?
Higher ash content is thought to improve what?
Yeast fermentation and flavor.
Artisan bread flours typically don't contain bleaching or maturing agents and are more likely than other flours to be ________.
Pastry flour is milled from what?
Soft wheat, generally soft red winter wheat, but it can be milled from soft white wheat, as well.
How much protein is typically in pastry flour?
7 - 9.5%
Is pastry flour usually bleached?
Why does pastry flour have a low capacity to absorb water?
It's typically low in protein, water grabbing pentosans, and damaged starched granules.
What are pentosans?
Polysaccharides of five‐carbon sugars (pentoses). Widely distributed in plants, e.g. fruit, wood, corncobs, oat hulls. Not digested in the body, and hence a component of non‐starch polysaccharides and dietary fiber.
Do batters and doughs made with pastry flour remain relatively soft and fluid in the early stages of baking?
Why is having a batter or dough thats soft and fluid good for cookie dough and cake?
Helps cookies spread further and cakes to rise higher than with a stronger flour.
Cake flour is milled from what?
Soft wheat, generally from soft red winter wheat.
Cake flour is short or fancy patent flour. What does this mean? What does it give the flour?
Meaning that it comes from the absolute heart of the endosperm. This gives cake flour a finer granulation, whiter color, lower protein and slightly higher starch content.
How much protein is in cake flour?
6 - 8%
Cake flour is typically bleached with what? What do these chemicals do?
Both chlorine and benzoyl peroxide, yielding a stark white color and distinctly changed flavor.
Because of the chlorine cake flour is sometimes called what?
Chlorinated or high-ratio flour.
Recall: Is chlorine a maturing agent? Why?
Yes, it weekends gluten and increases the ability of starch to absorb water.
What happens to cookie dough made from cake flour instead of pastry flour?
It's stiff and dry, and the lack of free water prevents much, if any, spread during baking.
Are cookies made from cake flour smaller or bigger than those made with pastry flour? What about browning and texture?
Smaller, they also brown very little and have a cake like texture.
What happens if bread is made with pastry flour? Explain.
It will not look or taste like the same bread made from bread flour. First, dough will be softer, even though less water is required is required in the mixing. It will readily bake and tear and be over mixed. Once bread is baked, it will have a lower volume. The crust will not brown as readily, and the crumb will be whiter. Air cells in the crumb will tend to be larger and more irregular. Expect a different flavor, and if the bread is stored for several days, it will become stale faster.
Many of the differences between bread made with pastry flour vs bread flour are due to what?
Lower amount of high quality protein in pastry flour compared with bread flour.
The importance of _______ on the properties of cake flour cannot be overstressed. It is as much , if not more, the __________ treatment as the low protein content that defines cake flour.
Is chlorination of flour allowed in European Union?
Some promising alternative treatments to chlorination include what?
Use of heat, enzymes, and additives, such as anthem gum.
AP flour is not always used be professional pastry chefs. However, it is sold in the foodservice industry as what?
H&R flour (hotel and restaurant)
AP flour typically is what % protein?
9.5 - 11.5% but can vary with the brand.
AP flour is often made from a blend of what?
Hard and soft wheat, but this is not always the case.
What type of flour is King Arthur flour made from?
Entirely hard wheat.
White Lily flour is made from what?
Entirely from soft wheat.
Does AP flour come bleached and unbleached?
What does AP flour usually contain vitamins or malted barley flour?
Yes, it typically is enriched with vitamins and minerals, and may contain added malted barley flour.
Can many cakes be made successfully with pastry flour or bread flour? What's the exception?
Light, sweet, moist, and tender high-ratio cakes cannot. High-ratio cakes are made from formulas that contain a high ratio of liquid and sugar to flour. Without cake flour, these cakes would not rise, or more likely they would rise and then collapse during baking and cooling.
Why do high-ratio cakes rise and collapse during baking and cooling without cake flour?
Recall that chlorine modifies the starch in flour, so that flour absorbs more water than it otherwise would. This makes for thicker cake batters, even when large amounts of water and sugar are added. Thick batters are good at holding tiny air bubbles, for a light texture, high volume, and fine crumb. Recall, too, that starch is a structure builder. With so much water and sugar in high-ratio cakes batters, and with weakened flute, chlorine-treated starch becomes essential for keeping the cake from collapsing in the oven, so cake volume stays high and light.
What if a formula calls for AP flour? Substitute?
Not all professional bakeshops stock AP flour. The standard substitute is a blend of bread and cake flour, usually a 60:40 blend. Yet this is not generally the best substitute.
If a formula calls for AP flour in a yeast-raised product and you have none. Explain.
Bread flour is the best choice. Additional water will be needed to form the dough, and longer mixing will be needed to develop the gluten. The dough will handle more easily, the bread will be higher than if it was made from AP flour, and it will have a finer crumb.
If a formula calls for AP flour in a fine textured, high-ratio cake product and you have none. Explain.
Cake flour instead of AP flour. For most other cakes, such as ginger bread or carrot cake, and for all other products, including pastries and cookies, use pastry flour.
Whole wheat flour is sometimes called what?
Graham or entire wheat flour in North America and wholemeal flour in Great Britain and other countries.
Is whole wheat flour a whole grain product? Why?
Yes, because it contains all three parts of the kernel - bran, endosperm and germ - in the same proportion as they occurred in the original kernel.
Why does whole wheat flour have a shorter shelf life than white flour?
Because the bran and germ are high in oil, an oil which easily oxidizes to produce rancid, off flavors.
Does whole wheat flour come in different granulations?
Yes, from coarse to fine. This is true of stone-ground and milled flour.
Why do coarse flours not form gluten as readily as fine flours? Does it affect density?
They absorb water more slowly. This is why coarse grained flours usually result in dense baked goods.
Are coarse flours absorbed and digested slower than fine grain? Does it help blood glucose?
Yes, it helps control blood glucose levels.
Is a common misconception that graham flour is either coarser or finer than whole wheat flour?
Who created graham crackers? When?
Reverend Sylvester Graham in 1829
What flour did Reverend Graham first use for his crackers?
Coarsely ground whole wheat flour.
In both US and Canada today, are there any regulations that differentiate graham flour from whole wheat flour based on a particular size?
Whole wheat flour is typically milled from what?
Hard red wheat
Whole wheat pastry flour is usually milled from what?
Soft red wheat
If milled from the same wheat, what has a higher protein content?
Whole wheat flour has more than white flour.
% of protein in whole wheat flour.
Typically 11-14% or more.
Reasons whole wheat flour has a higher protein content but will not form as much gluten as white flour.
- Sharp bran particles in whole wheat flour literally cut through gluten strands as they form.
- Bran is high in pentosan gums, which interfere with gluten formation.
- Much of the protein in whole wheat flour is from the bran and the germ, which do not form gluten.
- Wheat germ contains a protein fragment (glutathione) that interferes with gluten development.
Who made the first stone ground flour? How?
Early man by crushing and grinding between stones. It eventually evolved to stone, or grist, mills.
What is a gristmill?
Consists of two rotating circular granite millstones that rub or crush the grain that is sandwiched between the two stones.
Before roller mills revolutionized the milling industry in the late 1800s, how many neighboring gristmills were there across the United States?
22,000 mostly run by windmills or water wheels.
Today, stone grinding is mainly used for what?
Whole grain flours and meals rather than white flour.
Stone-ground flour is usually characterized by what?
An even distribution of germ oil throughout the flour, and often by small bran particles.
When bran particles are small what does it mean for nutrition?
Protein and other nutrients are more readily available for digestion. This is why stone-ground flour manufacturers sometimes advertise digestibility and higher nutritional value.
What is the benefit of old gristmills on flour?
They grind slowly, creating very little friction that would kill active enzymes or cause oil to oxidize.
Why is the presence of enzymes a mixed blessing in flour?
While low heat of gristmills might not oxidize the wheat germ oils, enzymes can. This is probably why stone-ground flours have a short shelf life, and probably have a stronger flavor than roller-milled flour.
What are roller-mills used for?
Primary means for milling flour today.
When were roller-mills invented?
In Europe as early as the 1500s but did not have widespread use in North America until the late 1800s.
Roller mills consist of what? How are they different from gristmills?
A sequence of paired iron rollers, either grooved or smooth, that rotate inwards. Because one roller is set to spin faster than the other, the grains caught in the middle are twisted and chopped. This flattens the bran into large flakes and breaks the endosperm into large chunks. This is different the the rubbing and crushing in gristmills.
How is whole wheat flour from roller-mills usually made?
By recombining the endosperm, bran, and germ in the proportions that they were present in the original kernel.
Using roller-mills increases shelf life of whole wheat flour. Why?
Because the germ is flattened in this process and not rubbed throughout the flour, its valuable oils remain in the germ.This is said to minimize oxidation of oils in the flour. It is also likely that the higher heat of a roller-mill destroys lipase enzymes, which helps prevent off flavors and helps extend shelf-life.
Are baked goods made with 100% whole wheat flour darker and stronger in flavor than white flour?
Yes, but also less cohesive and resilient.
Whole white wheat flour is made from what?
Soft or hard wheat, two new classes of wheat grown in North America.
Why did farmers begin growing more white wheat?
To satisfy the Asian market, where white wheat is preferred to red wheat flour in noodle making.
Is wheat flour the same as whole wheat flour?
What's the difference between wheat flour and whole wheat flour?
Whole wheat flour is a whole grain, milled from the whole wheat kernel. Wheat flour is another name for white flour, milled from the endosperm.
Why is wheat flour given its name?
To distinguish it from rye flour, corn flour, oat flour, or rice flour. A helpful distinction for those with wheat allergies.
Does wheat flour contain all the health benefits of whole wheat flour?
No, this is a common misnomer.
Is wheat bread the same as 100% whole wheat bread? Why?
No, wheat bread typically has white flour as its main ingredient. While it contains some whole, it often contains caramel color or molasses, for the darker look of 100% whole wheat bread.
What is semolina flour?
Durum wheat is commonly sold either as finely ground flour, called durum flour, or as coarser granular product, called durum semolina or simply semolina.
How big are semolina particles?
About the same size as farina.
What color is whole white wheat flour?
Golden, not white.
Describe the taste of whole white wheat flour. Why is this good for some customers?
Has a sweeter, milder taste than whole wheat flour made from red wheats. This makes it more acceptable to consumers who prefer lighter, milder-tasting breads and pastries.
Is whole white wheat flour high in dietary fiber like whole wheat flour?
Yes, it is a whole grain after all.
Is whole white wheat flour being used in many breakfast cereals and baked goods?
hat is durum made from?
The endosperm of durum wheat.
Is durum wheat the same as common wheat? Why?
No, durum has a very hard kernel. Harder than so called hard wheat kernels and is very high in protein (12-15%).
Why is durum so hard to reduce to a flour?
Because it's extremely hard, which means reducing it to a flour causes a high concentration of damaged starch granules.
What provides the desirable yellow color in durum?
Yellow carotenoid pigments, which provide a desirable golden color to pasta products.
What are two main bakeshop ingredients that contribute to the toughening or structure building in baked goods?
Flour and eggs.
Besides structure in baked goods, flour provides ________ to pastry creams and certain pie fillings.
What is responsible for much of the structure-building properties in flour?
Gluten and starch.
Gluten if formed from how many proteins in flour?
Does pentosan gum also contribute to flour structure?
Yes. Gums appear to form their own structure or to interact with gluten.
Which of these structure builders--gluten, starch, or gums--is most important to a particular baked product depends on what?
The type of flour and formula used.
Main structure builder when using cake flour. Explain.
Little, if any, gluten forms from cake flour or from non wheat flours, Instead, starch, or starch and gums, becomes the main structure builder.
What is the main structure builder in products low in moisture, such as pie crusts and crisp cookies? Why?
They inevitably rely on gluten alone for structure, because starch gelatinization cannot occur in the absence of sufficient water.
Even with flours that contain gluten, is gluten necessarily the only, or most important, structure builder? Explain using yeast-raised baked goods.
No. Gluten is certainly the most important for developing unbaked dough, but starch is arguably more important to the final structure of the baked product.
Ingredients such as flour that absorb liquids are also called what?
hree main components in flour that absorb moisture and oil, helping bind ingredients together.
Starches, proteins and gums.
Are the same components that form structure also driers? What's the difference?
Yes, but all proteins in flour (not just glutenin and gliadin) absorb moisture, while only gluten in and gliadin form structure.
Is the absorption value of flour an important quality factor in bread baking?
Why are high absorption values desirable in bread baking?
Added moisture slows staling and means less flour needs to be used (most cost effective).
Water absorption in most bread ranges around what?
50 to 65%, meaning that 1 pound (450g) of flour absorbs over 0.5 pound (225g) of water.
Do many factors influence water absorption?
Yes, but flours that absorb more water typically have higher protein content.
What flours have a relatively mild, slightly nutty flavor?
Wheat flours but each has a different flavor.
Should you expect clear flour, with its higher protein and ash content, to have a stronger flavor than patent flour?
What has the strongest flavor of all the flours?
Whole wheat flour
Color of whole wheat flour.
Nut-brown color from pigments in the bran.
Color of whole white wheat flour.
Color of durum.
Pale yellow color.
Color of unbleached white flour.
Color of unbleached white flour. Creamy color.
Color of cake flour.
Stark white color.
By estimate, almost half the water in bread dough is held by ________, about one-third by _______ and close to one-quarter by small amount of ______ in white flour.
Starch, proteins, gums
Why does starch absorb so much of the water in doughs?
Because there's so much starch in flour.
Best way to predict which of two wheat flours will absorb more moisture.
Comparing the amount of protein in each.
Proteins absorb how much water compared to their weight?
One to two times.
Starch granules absorb how much water compared to their weight?
One-quarter to one-half their weight in water.
Does a small increases in protein have a noticeable increase in the amount of water absorbed in doughs?
Which of these flours absorb the most liquid: High-gluten, pastry and bread flour.
High-gluten absorbs the most, then bread flour and pastry flour.
Besides protein absorbing water, high-protein flours (being from hard wheat) also absorb more moisture for another reason. What is it?
They contain more damaged starch granules.
Damaged starch granules take up how much more water than intact ones?
Three to four times as much.
Predicting water absorption from protein values works as long as what? Why?
The wheat flour is not bleached with chlorine since they change starch to absorb more water.
Why does cake flour absorb as much water as it does?
Treated with chlorine and milled very fine.
Do higher protein flours typically undergo more Maillard browning than lower protein flours?
The protein in wheat is low in what essential amino acid? How does it compare to eggs or milk?
Lysine, which means it's not as nutritionally complete as eggs or milk.
Is white flour a good source of fiber?
Do all flours have a limited shelf life?
Yes, even white flour.
Millers recommend flours be stored for how long?
No more than 6 months.
Main changes that occur in stored flour.
Oxidation of the oils when flour is exposed to air.
Why does white flour have a shelf life?
While whole wheat flour and wheat germ are most likely to oxidize because of their high oil content, even the small amount of oil present in white flour (about 1%) eventually causes changes to flavor.
Best way to avoid rancid aged flour problems?
Follow FIFO rules. First in, first out - and do not add new flour to old. Store in a cool, dry area. This prevents flour from absorbing moisture and odors and from attracting insects and rodents. Wheat germ (and whole wheat flour) is generally stored under refrigeration if not used within a few months.
What is celiac disease?
A disease of the intestinal tract brought about by the consumption of gluten (more specifically, the gliadin in gluten).
What happens to the intestines of celiac patients?
When gluten is consumed, even in very small amounts, the body reacts by damaging the small intestine, where nutrients are absorbed by the body. This causes the patient to be malnourished and develop a number of symptoms related to intestinal distress or to poor nutrition.
Is celiac genetic?
People with celiac's cannot consume what?
Wheat, rye, barely, and oats may be a problem.
Most common genetic disease in Europe.