Flashcards in CHAPTER 8: SUGAR AND OTHER SWEETENERS Deck (498):
Most common sweetener in the bakeshop?
Two main categories for sweeteners. Is there a third?
Dry crystalline sugars and syrups. Third is specialty sweeteners.
Although less commonly used and often expensive, what fulfills needs that cannot easily be met by the common sweeteners?
Sugar generally means what?
Sucrose, the most common sugar in a bakeshop.
Other sugars (besides sucrose) include what?
Fructose, glucose, maltose and lactose.
Can fructose, sucrose, glucose, maltose and lactose all be purchased in dry white crystal?
Yes, although, except for sucrose, it is more common to purchase them in syrup form.
What is the most abundant sugar in nature?
Does glucose have an abundance of names?
Glucose is typically called what when purchased as dry crystalline sugar?
Dextrose is added to many processed food products such as...
Cake mixes, chocolate chips, sausages, and hot dogs.
Dextrose provides many of the properties of sugar with less what?
Commercially, the main source of crystalline dextrose is what?
What is sometimes called corn sugar?
Is glucose present in nearly all ripened fruit?
The presence of glucose in what is essential to the fermentation of grapes to wine? What do winemakers call glucose?
Grapes, this is why winemakers call glucose grape sugar.
Is blood sugar another name for glucose? Why?
Yes, it is the sugar that flows through the bloodstream.
Is glucose shorthand for glucose syrup? What's it commonly called in the United States?
Yes, commonly called corn syrup in the US because it is usually derived from cornstarch.
Does glucose corn syrup contain only glucose?
No, it does contain a certain amount of the monosaccharide but generally contains significant amounts of other components as well, so the name is somewhat misleading.
What other syrups contain the monosaccharide glucose?
Honey, molasses, invert syrup, and malt syrup.
Historically, were glucose corn syrups manufactured for the glucose they contained?
Yes, so while misleading, the name is logical.
All sugar are classified as what?
What are simple carbohydrates at a molecular level?
Molecules that consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms arranged in a specific way.
After simple carbohydrates, sugars are further classified as what?
Monosaccharides or disaccharides.
What are monosaccharides?
Consist of one (mono) sugar unit (saccharide) and are considered simple sugars.
What are the two main monosaccharides?
Glucose and fructose, although there are others.
Are fructose and glucose naturally present in many ripened fruits?
The skeletal molecular structure of the monosaccharide glucose is sometimes shown as what?
The skeletal molecular structure of the monosaccharide fructose is sometimes shown as what?
Why do the skeletal figures overlook the true complexity of sugar molecules?
For one, they don't show the carbon, hydrogen or oxygen atoms that form the structure of the molecules.
Disaccharides consist of what?
Two sugar units bonded together.
What's maltose, or malt sugar, an example of?
Maltose consists of how many glucose molecules?
Maltose is commonly found in what?
Glucose corn syrup and malt syrup.
Is lactose (milk sugar) a mono or disaccharide?
Disaccharide only found in dairy products.
Is sucrose a mono or disaccharide?
Sucrose consists of what molecules?
One molecule of glucose bonded to fructose.
In addition to mono and disaccharides, two other main classifications of carbohydrates are?
Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides.
Oligosaccharides are made of what?
A few (oligo)sugar units, usually three to ten, bonded in a chain.
The sweetener industry calls oligosaccharides what?
Higher saccharides or dextrins.
Are dextrins and higher saccharides found in many syrups in the bakeshop?
Polysaccharides are what?
Very large molecules made up of many (poly), often thousands, of sugar units.
What are starch and inulin?
The sugar units in starch are what?
The sugar units in inulin are primarily what?
Sugar crystals are highly ordered arrangements of what?
Sugar molecules bonded together.
Why do sugar crystals form?
Sugar molecules of the same type are attracted to one another.
When would crystal growth be desirable and undesirable?
Desirable when making rock candy, undesirable when making nut brittle, pulled sugar, or smooth and creamy fondant icings.
What is a centrifuge?
A piece of equipment, generally driven by an electric motor (or, in some older models, by hand), that puts an object in rotation around a fixed axis, applying a force perpendicular to the axis.
For the most part, are sugar crystals pure? What does this mean?
Yes, this means that crystals of sucrose consist entirely of sucrose, even when they form from syrups that contain a mix of the sugars. The mix just makes it more difficult for crystals to form, because it makes it difficult for molecules of the same type to come together.
Do sugar crystals need to be bleached?
No, because they're pure sugar crystals are naturally white in color.
Why are some crystals off white?
Impurities are trapped between the crystals.
Are all sugars hygroscopic?
What is hygroscopic?
To attract and bond to water.
Is sugar typically more attracted to water than proteins, starches, and gums?
Yes, sugar will pull water away from these structure builders and driers.
When sugar pulls water away from structure builders and driers, what happens to dough? Explain.
It softens and thins out. The proteins, starches and gums are no longer able to hydrate, trapping and holding water. Instead, the water is released to sugar, forming a thin syrup as part of the batter or dough.
Highly hygroscopic sugars, such as fructose, readily pick up what from moist air?
When are hygroscopic sugars called humectants?
When they are used to keep certain products (such as cookies or icings) soft or stop them from cracking, dulling or drying.
When is sugars hygroscopic nature undesirable?
When a dusting of powdered sugar on doughnuts liquefies; when the surface of cookies, cakes, and muffins becomes gummy or soggy; or when spun or pulled sugar becomes sticky and collapses.
Is sucrose naturally present in maple tree sap, palm tree sap, dates, ripe bananas, and many other ripened fruits?
Commercial production of sucrose involves removing and purifying what from where?
Natural sucrose from sugarcane or from sugar beets.
Are various forms of dry crystalline sugar available?
Yes, each differing primarily in granulation or particular size.
Some crystalline sugar contain extra ingredients such as...
Molasses or cornstarch.
Names of sugar can refer to particular size of crystals, use, or to the user. Give examples.
Superfine, extrafine,sanding sugar, confectioners' sugar, baker's special sugar.
Going from largest to smallest in particle size.
Coarse, regular, superfine, 6X powdered, 10X powdered, fondant sugar.
Regular granulated sugar is also called what?
Fine or extrafine sugar.
In Canada, granulated sugar is mostly purified from what?
In Europe, sugar is mostly purified from what?
In the U.S.S, sugar is mostly purified from what?
Half sugar cane and half sugar beets.
Is sugar cane a tall reedy grass?
Where was sugar cane first cultivated? How long ago?
The South Pacific at least eight thousand years ago.
Where did sugar cane migrate after the South Pacific?
West, to India, then China and Persia (Iran), countries that have extracted and purified sugar from the cane for the past 2 or three thousand years.
Were Europeans relatively late in using cane sugar? What did they use instead?
Yes, they relied more on available sweeteners such as ripened fruit and honey.
When was sugar cane introduced to Europe?
During the Crusades in the eleventh and twelve centuries.
What was considered so precious in Europe that it was used in mostly medicine?
Why was sugar cane under the control of Arab traders for many years?
It's tropical and doesn't grow well in Europe.
What did the Spanish and Portuguese do for the cultivation of sugar cane?
They brought it into Africa and the New World, which made it readily available throughout Europe.
Although still a luxury, when was sugar used in confectionery and in coffee, tea, and hot chocolate.
By the 1600s.
By the 1800s, what changed in sugar?
Refining methods were improved and prices came down, making it readily available to the middle class.
When was the use of beets for sugar used?
A more recent development, first commercialized by a Prussian (German) chemist in the 1700s.
Who adopted and refined the process of sugar beet manufacturing? Why?
The French in the early 1800s, when the Napoleonic Wars created a need for a domestic source of this important ingredient.
Besides Napoleonic Wars, what else drove interest in sugar beet cultivation?
The antislavery movement in Europe and the Americas, because sugar beets grow in temperate climates without extensive labor.
Over the years, have sugar beets been selectively bred to contain high amounts of sucrose?
How much sucrose do today's beets contain compared to the 1700s?
17% sucrose, over twice the amount from 1700s, and slightly more than sugar cane.
Predominant source of sugar in Europe?
Regualr granulated sugar from with sugar beets or cane is more than what % pure sucrose?
For most practical applications. is sugar refined in Norht America from either source used interchangeably?
Can even very small amounts of impurities cause undesirable crystallization and browning in sugar confectionary?
What's the solution for impurities causing browning and undesirable crystallization? Why?
Add or increase the amount of cream of tartar to the formula. Cream of tartar and other acids prevent both crystallization and browning by lowering pH.
Today, is there a trend towards using sugars that have not gone through the complete refining process?
What are these trendy sugars called?
They go by many names, but mostly they are called evaporated cane juice or natural cane juice crystals.
What's "wrong" with trendy sugars?
They have been refined through one--rather than three--washings and centrifuge cycles. They have also not been filtered or decolorized.
Sometimes called first crystallization sugar, these sugars retain a small amount of ______-_______ refiners' syrup--generally less than __%. They have a pale ______ color and very ______ flavor, much closer to regular granulated sugar than to brown sugar.
lightly-colored, 2%, gold, mild
Will first crystallization sugars function in baked goods as regular granulated sugar?
Yes, except for a slight off-white cast they give to light-colored products.
Are semi-refined sugars often marketed as a substitute for granulated sugar to natural foods industry?
Yes, and they can be made to various granulation sizes, just like regular granulated sugar.
Organic cane sugars, that is, sugar made from sugar cane grown organically, are often sold ____-_____.
Do semi-refined sugars, including organic versions, have added health benefits?
No, they just cost three times more.
The manufacturing of white sugar involves what two basic steps?
The production or the milling of the raw sugar from cane or beets, and the refining of the indelible, raw sugar into white sugar.
Are the specifics of processing cane and beets somewhat different?
Yes, but in both cases sucrose is not changed chemically.
Through a series of what steps, is sucrose physically separated from impurities?
Filtration, crystallization, washing, and centrifugation.
First step of milling cane sugar?
Crushing freshly harvested sugarcane and extracting the juice with water.
Second step of milling sugarcane?
Lime (calcium oxide, an alkali) and carbon dioxide are added to this cloudy juice, to trap impurities. The impurities settle to the bottom and the liquid is strained to remove them from the clear juice.
Third step in milling process of cane sugar.
Water is evaporated from the clear juice until it is a thick yellow syrup. The syrup is filtered then concentrated by gently heating it in vacuum pans. As water evaporates and syrup becomes super saturated, sugar crystals form.
Fourth step in milling process of cane sugar.
The crystallized mixture in centrifuged to separate the crystals from the dark, thick syrup (molasses), and the crystals are washed and recentrifuged. The light brown crude raw sugar is ready to be refined into pure white sugar.
What happens to the molasses?
It is recycled, often two or three more times, by heating and recentrifuging until no more sugar crystals can be easily extracted.
What happens every time you with each extraction of the molasses?
The amount of sugar decreases while the color, flavor, and ash increase
While so-called first, second and third extraction of cane molasses are sometimes blended and sold for food use, final-extraction is considered what?
Too dark in color and too harsh in flavor for use by humans.
What is crude raw sugar considered North America?
Unclean and inedible.
What happens to crude raw sugar?
It's sent to the refinery, where it undergoes a series of processes involving more washing, centrifuging, clarifying, and filtering. The sugar syrup is also decolorized.
How is sugar syrup decolorized? Explain how some manufacturers use bone char.
Meaning it passes through an ion exchange or activated carbon filter, much as you would pass water through a filter. A few cane (but not beet) sugar manufacturers still use bone char from cattle for decolorization, which strict vegetarians find unacceptable.
Last stage of refining process in sugar.
Pure sugar is crystallized for the last time, then dried, screened through wire meshes, packed, and sold.
What happen to remaining syrup from refining process?
Remaining syrup, commonly called molasses, is referred to as refiners' syrup by the sugar industry. This differentiates it from molasses syrup left from the milling operation of sugar manufacture.
What are coarse sugars good for muffins and other baked goods?
They do not readily dissolve, and have an attractive sparkle.
Coarse crystalline sugar is sometimes called what?
Sanding sugar, although that term also refers to a different product called pearl sugar.
Coarse white sugars are often best for what? Why?
Whitest fondants and confections and clearest syrups, because they have the fewest impurities of all granulated sugars.
Being pure, coarse sugars are significantly more _______ than regular granulated sugars.
What is needed if large, sparkling crystals are to form?
Purity often exceeding 99.98%
One coarse sugar, designed for the whitest confections, is called what?
What should AA confectioners not be confused with?
This pure, coarse sugar should not be confused with finely pulverized powdered sugar.
Powdered sugar is often called what?
Confectioners sugar in the US and icing or fondant sugar in Canada.
Powdered sugar consists of what?
Sucrose crystals finely pulverized into powder and is available in various degrees of fineness.
The fineness of a powdered sugar grind is often indicated as what?
A number before an X--the higher the number, the greater the fineness.
Two common powdered sugars are what?
6X and 10X.
Of 6X and 10X, which is better for what? Why?
10X is best for smoothest uncooked icings and confections; anything coarser would be too gritty. For decorative dustings on desserts, 6X is the better choice, since its coarser grind means it is less likely to cake or liquefy.
Powdered sugars typically contains 3% what? Why?
Cornstarch, which absorbs moisture and prevents caking.
How does having 3% cornstarch in powdered sugars hurt and help?
It helps stiffen meringues but you may notice a raw starch taste when using it in certain applications.
Superfine sugar has crystals that are intermediate in size between what?
Powdered sugar and regular granulated sugar.
Superfine sugar is also called what?
Does superfine sugar dissolve more quickly in liquids than regular granulated?
Why is superfine sugar good for batters and creamed shortenings?
It allows smaller air cells in, and is good for sugaring baked goods.
What is pearl sugar?
Opaque white irregular granules that do not dissolve readily.
How is pearl sugar used?
Much like coarse crystalline sugar, to provide a crunchy decorative topping on sweet baked goods, but it has a very different look than clear, glistening crystals of coarse crystalline sugar.
Three of names for pearl sugar.
Sanding sugar, decorative sugar, or nibs.
Do the names of certain sugars explain how they're used?
Yes, fruit sugar, for example, is so fine it dissolves quickly when sprinkled on fruit.
What should fruit sugar not be confused with?
Fructose, which is also called fruit sugar because it is found in fruit.
What is baker's sugar used for?
Used by bakers to produce the finest crumb in certain cakes; it also produces greater spread in cookies and is good for sugaring doughnuts.
What is bar sugar used for?
Dissolves so quickly in cold beverages; used for bar drinks.
What is caster or castor sugar named after?
The small container used for serving sugar in British homes. The grains are so fine they fit through a sugar "caster" or sprinkler.
Caster sugar is sold as what in the United States?
Is superfine sugar as fine as confectioners?
No, it isn't mechanically crushed like confectioners'.
How does confectioners' sugar keep from clumping together?
They add a little starch as anti-caking agent.
How do you make superfine sugar in your home?
Place regular granulated sugar in the food processor for a couple minutes.
What does superfine sugar do to meringues and cookies?
It reduces beading in common meringues and increases spread in cookies.
What is brown sugar?
Refers to fine granulated sugar with a small amount -usually less than 10% - of molasses or refiners' syrup.
Why is brown sugar soft, sticky and tends to clump?
Because most, if not all, of the molasses is on the surface of the tiny sugar crystals.
Light brown sugar is also called what?
Sometimes, but not always, dark brown sugar has what added?
Is there any difference in the amount of molasses added to (North American) light or dark brown sugar?
Very little difference if any.
Brown sugar is commercially made one of two ways. Explain.
To partially refine sugar crystals, that is, to leave some molasses syrup and other impurities with the crystallized sugar.
To blend cane sugar molasses with granulated white sugar, coating the crystals with molasses.
Which method of preparing brown sugar is more common?
Both are common, but the first method is typically used when brown sugar is made from sugar cane. The second method is always used with sugar beets.
Brown sugar is primarily used for what?
Its distinct molasses flavor and color.
Brown sugar is soft and tends to clump because of what?
It's higher in moisture (3-4%) than granulated sugar.
What should you substitute with if brown sugar is unavailable? Think in kilograms.
1 pound (1 kilogram) molasses and 9 pounds (or 9 kilograms) sugar for every 10 pounds (or 10 kilograms) brown sugar in formula.
Are there specialty brown sugars available?
What is muscovado?
The darkest, richest-tasting brown sugar. It is soft and moist, consisting of powdery-fine crystals enrobed in molasses.
Muscovado is sometimes called what?
Barbados sugar, after the island in the Caribbean where it was produced in the 1700s.
How was muscovado sugar originally made?
Draining excess molasses from crystallized raw, unrefined sugar before shipping the sugar to England for refining.
The word muscovado is derived from what?
The Spanish word for unrefined.
What two types of muscovado are sold today?
Dark and light.
Dark muscovado retains the full amount of molasses (13%) from what?
13% molasses from sugar cane syrup.
Light muscovado contains how much molasses?
Was is sucanat?
The trade-marked name for free-flowing brown sugar that is made with the full amount of molasses (13%) added back.
Despite having the name amount of molasses as muscovado, Sucanat is what color and flavor?
Golden colorant less intense flavor.
Sucanat stands for what?
SUgar CAne NATural
Why does Sucanat for granules rather than crystals?
It is slowly stirred while it dries and cools.
Sucanat is sometimes labeled what?
Dehydrated cane juice.
What is rapadura?
The brand name of an organic dehydrated cane juice which is similar in appearance and texture to Sucanat.
Rapadura is also the generic name in Brazil for what?
So-called non-centrifugal sugars.
How is turbinado sugar similar and different from light brown sugar?
Similar in taste and color to light brown sugar, but is dry and free-flowing, rather than soft and moist.
Turbinado sugar is sometimes called what?
Raw, washed raw, or unrefined sugar, but these terms are somewhat misleading. A better term might be partially refined.
How to make turbinado sugar.
Crude, raw sugar is first cleaned by steaming it. It is then washed and centrifuged to remove surface molasses before it is crystallized and dried.
Turbinado's refining steps turn crude raw sugar into an edible light golden brown sugar that typically retains what percent of molasses?
Where does the term turbinado come from?
Use of the centrifuge, which is also called a turbine, in the refining process of this and all sugar except artisanal non-centrifugal ones.
Sugar in the Raw and Florida Crystals are two brands of what?
Turbinado brown sugar.
What is demerara sugar?
A type of turbinado sugar. It is light brown with large, golden crystals.
Where is demerara popular?
Great Britain as a sweetener in coffee or on cereal.
Because demerara crystals also used as decorative sanding sugar?
Its crystals are large, crunchy, and glistening.
Demerara is named after what?
A region in Guyana, the country in South America where quantities of it were first made.
In some areas of the world, is sugar cane juice still evaporated in open pans until it's dry, to produce crude, unrefined brown sugar, much as it was made thousands of years ago?
These unrefined raw sugars are sometimes called what? Why?
Non-centrifugal sugars, since they have not been centrifuged, or spun, to remove molasses at any stage in the process.
Do all unrefined sugars retain a rich, hearty flavor of molasses?
Yes. In fact, they can be thought of as crystallized molasses or evaporated cane juices, with nothing removed at any stage.
Are all unrefined sugars different? Why?
Yes, because of differences in regional practices.
Is unrefined sugar generally consumed where it is produced?
Yes, but quantities are available through specialty distributors, as interest in unique flavor of each regions sugar has grown.
What is the most common example of unrefined sugar? Where is it from?
Jaggery, made in the villages of India, where it is often called gur.
How is Jaggery made?
Boiling and stirring sugarcane juice until it evaporates to a thickened crystallized syrup. The hot, fudge-like mixture is cast in cylindrical molds or formed into cakes and cooled to harden.
Sometimes jaggery is grated from hardened blocks and sold as what?
Powdery crystals called shakkar (Hindi for sugar).
When shakkar is washed with water, centrifuged, and crumbled into grains, the resulting semi-refined product is called what?
About how much of the sugar consumed in India is shakkar, khandsari and jaggery?
1/3 to 1/2
Besides India, jaggery is also used throughout where?
What is panela? Where is rapadura, piloncillo and panocha sold/from?
Unreifined sugar from Columbia that's sold as rectangular or round flat loaves throughout South America; rapider, from Brazil; cone-shaped piloncillo from Mexico; and panocha from the Philippines.
Refined artisan sugar made in Japan is called what?
How is Wasanbon toh made?
Special variety of sugar cane is refined by repeatedly mixing sugar crystals with water, kneading the mix by hand, and pressing it with stones to remove molasses syrup. When complete, the sugar take form of a fine, ivory-white powder. It's said to have a delicate flavor and is important in traditional Japanese sweets.
Today, much of the demerara - and muscovado - sugar sold is produced and shipped where?
Produces on the island of Mauritius, off the coast of Africa, and exported to Europe.
Syrups are mixtures of what?
One or more sugars dissolved in water, usually with small amounts of the other components, including acids, colorants, flavorants, and thickeners.
Do the other components in syrups play a crucial role?
Although present in small amounts, they are extremely important because they provide the unique characters of each syrup.
Most syrups contain what % water?
20%, but there are exceptions.
Invert syrup usually contains how much water?
Maple syrups usually contains how much water?
Simple syrup often contains how much water?
Why are some syrups thicker than others?
They usually contain less water or higher saccharides in addition to sugar.
Why does having high saccharides thicken syrup?
The larger size of saccharides makes them slower to move and apt to bump and tangle, which is why they thicken.
High saccharides are present is what?
Glucose corn syrups and other thick syrups, such as honey and molasses.
Can syrups be used interchangeably?
Sometimes, but often one syrup, because of its makeup, excels over others at a particular function.
Example how how some syrups are better for some projects than others.
Most syrups tend to sweeten, moisten, and brown when used in baked goods. But syrups high in fructose, such as invert syrup, and honey, excel at these functions.
re syrups sometimes described by their solid content?
If typical glucose corn syrup contains about 80% solids and 20% water, such a syrup is described as having _____º Brix.
Brix is named after who?
Adolf Brix, the German scientist who created the scale.
What is Brix?
A measure of the percentage of soluble solids (sugar, primarily) in syrups and other products, including fruit juices.
Just as temp can be measured in Fahrenheit or Celsius, the solids content of syrups can be measured by what?
Brix or Baumé.
Buamé (Bé) units is named after who?
Antoine Baumé, the French scientist who created the scale.
Brix and Baumé units can both be measured using what?
Hydrometer, sometimes called saccharometer, meaning sugar meter.
A hydrometer actually measures specific what?
Gravity, which is related to density.
True or False: Syrups having a higher Brix or Baumé have a higher specific gravity, are denser, and therefore contain more soluble solids and less water than those with a lower reading.
A typical glucose corn syrup with a Brix of 80 will have a Baumé of what?
Formula that provides a good relationship between Brix and Baumé.
Baumé = 0.55 x Brix
Brix = Baumé/0.55
While pastry chefs have traditionally used hydrometers and Bumé units, what is being used now?
Refractometers to measure Brix. They are more expensive than hydrometers but are faster and require a smaller sample.
The simplest syrup is called what?
Bakers and pastry chefs usually make simple syrup by heating what?
Equal parts granulated sugar and water.
The ratio of sugar to water in a simple syrup shouldn't exceed what? Why?
2:1 or the sugar is likely to crystallize.
What does adding lemon do to simple syrup?
The acid could help prevent darkening and possibly crystallization, especially syrups high in sugar.
Name a few uses of simple syrup.
Moistening cake layers, glazing fresh fruits, thinning fondant, poaching fruit, and preparing sorbets.
Is simple syrup the only syrup made by bakers and pastry chefs?
Yes, all others are purchased (invert syrup, honey, molasses, glucose corn syrup).
The term invert syrup is sometimes used by bakers and pastry chefs to describe what? What's the more specific meaning?
Any liquid syrup, including glucose corn syrup, maple syrup, honey, and molasses. The terms more specific meaning is a table syrup that contains approximately equal amounts of fructose and glucose.
To produce invert syrup, the manufacturer treats a sugar (sucrose) with what? Why?
An enzyme or heats it with an acid. The enzyme, or a combo of heat and acid, breaks the bond between the two monosaccharides, releasing them. The process is sometimes called inversion, and what remains is invert syrup.
Invert syrup is made up of what?
Equal parts fructose and glucose, dissolved in water with a small amount of residual acid.
Two types of invert syrups used in bakeshops.
Full invert syrup and medium invert syrup.
What is full invert syrup?
Contains little, if any, remaining sucrose.
What is medium invert syrup? Is it easier to use than full invert syrup?
Invert syrup blended with an equal amount of sugar; it's easier to use since it's less apt to crystallize.
Is invert syrup sometimes called invert sugar, or simply invert?
Yes, it comes as a clear light-colored liquid or a thicker opaque cream, which contains tiny crystals of sugar suspended in syrup.
Name 3 of the several brands of invert sugar available to bakers and pastry chefs.
Nulomoline, trimoline, and FreshVert.
What is golden syrup?
Also know as light treacle, is popular in Great Britain. It's a refiner's syrup, a by-product of the sugar refining process, with golden color and a mild, caramelized sugar flavor.
Does golden syrup contain a moderate amount of invert sugar?
Yes, so it has the properties of a medium invert syrup.
When is golden syrup used?
Cooking and baking, as pancake syrup, and as ice cream topping.
Is invert syrup more expensive than sucrose? Yes, but...
Only slightly more, but it, like all syrups, is messier to use and has a shorter shelf life. This means that syrups like invert should only be used if they have properties that sugar cannot provide.
What several properties of invert sugar make it valuable in the bakeshop?
One, it keeps baked goods soft and moist longer. Two, it keeps icings, fondants, and confections smooth, shiny, and free from cracking and drying. Third, it prevents formation of ice crystals in frozen desserts, keeping them softer while frozen.
Is invert sugar sweeter than sugar? Does it brown faster?
Yes, and it browns much faster.
When invert syrup is used in baked goods, should the temperature be changed?
Yes, lowered 25ºF (15ºC) to prevent excessive browning.
Even with a lower oven temp, no more than ______% of the sugar in a formula should be replaced with invert syrup.
Too much invert syrup tends to make baked goods what?
Dark, dense, gummy, and too sweet.
How do you keep a white cake white when using invert syrup?
Use even less than 25% or add a small amount of cream of tartar to lower pH and slow browning.
Although bakers and pastry chef don't create invert syrup in bulk, how is it made in the shop?
Small amounts are made. For example, when acid, such as cream of tartar or tartaric acid, is added during boiling of sugar to reduce browning, a certain amount of sugar is inverted to fructose and glucose. This mixture of sugars helps reduce sugar crystallization, so the confection is smoother, shinier, and less apt to crack and dry. A small amount of lemon juice is added to simple syrup. Depending on amount added and length of time the syrup is heated, the acid allows a certain amount of sucrose to invert. This mix helps certain syrups from crystallizing.
What gives invert syrup its special properties?
Invert syrup has different properties than sucrose because it contains the monosaccharides fructose and glucose. While sucrose is made up of fructose and glucose, in sucrose they are bound to each other as a disaccharide. In full invert syrup, they are not.
What do fructose and glucose accomplish when they aren't bound together?
Fructose is particularly hygroscopic, meaning it's better than most sugars, including sucrose, at moistening. Also, a mixture of sugars crystallizes more slowly than pure sugar. Adding a small amount of invert syrup to icings, fondants, and confections means less sugar crystallization and more softness, creaminess, and shine. Additionally, monosaccharides, being smaller in size, are better at lowering the freezing point of water than sucrose. Fructose and glucose are also more reactive, meaning they break down and brown faster.
What is treacle?
Treacles are dark cane syrups sold in Great Britain. Just as molasses varies in color and flavor, so do treacles.
Black treacle is equivalent to low-grade edible what?
Blackstrap molasses, very dark in color and bitter in taste.
How are medium treacles made?
Blending molasses with higher-grade refiner's syrup.
Molasses is the concentrated juice of what?
Molasses is primarily used for color and what?
Are there moderate amounts of invert sugar in molasses?
Describe the highest grades of molasses.
Sweet, light in color, and mild in flavor.
Are the higher grade molasses products best for baking? More expensive?
Even though they are more expensive but not necessarily best for baking.
Why isn't high-grade molasses best for baking?
Strong flavors from spices and whole grains can easily overwhelm the mild, sweet flavor of premium, imported molasses. A darker, lower-grade molasses might be more suitable.
What is considered premium grade molasses?
Molasses made by directly boiling and concentrating sugarcane juice, with no sugar crystals removed.
What premium grade called in Canada?
The best premium grade molasses is imported from where?
Example of premium imported molasses.
Lower grades of molasses are by-products of what?
Cane sugar milling, often blended from first-, second-, and third-extraction molasses.
Why is lower grade molasses darker in color, less sweet, and more bitter than premium molasses?
Because some of the sugar has been removed and it has undergone more processing.
Hearty, robust flavor and dark color.
In the United States, blackstrap molasses usually refers to what?
Inedible final extraction molasses, extremely bitter and not very sweet.
In Canada, blackstrap is another name for what?
Low-grade but edible cooking molasses.
Glucose corn syrups are clear syrups produced from the ________, or breakdown, of starch.
By far the most common starch used in the production of glucose corn syrup is what?
Cornstarch, but any starch, including potato or wheat, can be used.
Starch is a carbohydrate that consists of how many glucose molecules bonded together?
Hundreds, maybe even thousands.
How do manufacturers produce glucose corn syrup?
They heat starch in the presence of water and acid and treat it with enzymes, breaking the large starch molecules into smaller units. The syrup is filtered and refined, to remove color and flavor.
All glucose corn syrups contains a certain amount of sugar (primarily what?) that sweetens, browns, moistens and tenderizes. The rest remains as larger fragments, called what?
Glucose and maltose; higher saccharides.
Do higher saccharides have the properties of sugar?
No, that is, they do not sweeten, brown, moisten or tenderize.
What do higher saccharides add? Why?
Because of their larger size, they thicken and add body and pliability to products. They are superior at interfering with the movement of molecules, so sugars are less likely to crystallize and water molecules are less likely to form ice.
Glucose corn syrups are often classified by the amount of what?
Conversion to sugar that the starch has undergone.
High-conversion syrups undergo what?
A high amount of hydrolysis and are high in sugars (and low in higher saccharides).
Low-conversion syrups undergo what?
A low amount of hydrolysis and are low in sugars (and high in higher saccharides.
Medium-conversion syrups fall between what?
The two extremes.
While many different glucose corn syrups are available to bakers and pastry chefs, most bakeshops stock how many?
2 or 3 at most.
Is regular glucose corn syrup, a medium conversion syrup (DE of 42), a goos all-purpose glucose corn syrup?
The sugar in regular glucose corn syrup provides some tenderness and sweetness to baked goods (although not as well as _______), and it moistens and browns (although not as well as ______ ________).
sucrose, invert syrup
Is glucose corn syrup ever used alone in baked goods?
Is Karo light corn syrup similar to glucose corn syrup?
Yes, although it contains fructose, salt and vanilla.
History of glucose corn syrup.
Tied to the political history of Europe. In the early 1800s, when Napoleonic Wars were being fought, England set up blockades around France. They prevented imported items from entering France. Needing to feed his army, Napoleon offered cash rewards for new ways to produce and preserve food domestically. One cash reward was given for production of sugar from native plants. Starch sugar was originally produced by treating potato starch with acid. The resulting starch sugar was not as sweet as cane sugar, so when the blockade was lifted, France stopped producing it. Production began again in the mid 1800s, this time in the US. Shortly thereafter, Americans began producing starch sugar from cornstarch instead of potato starch, and the corn syrup industry was born.
Today, how much of America's sweeteners comes annually from corn?
More than half of the 150lbs consumed annually by each American. Exceeding consumption of cane and sugar beets combined.
DE stands for what?
What is DE?
A measure of the degree of conversion of starch to sugar is glucose.
Pure cornstarch has a DE of what?
Pure dextrose has a DE of what?
Low-conversion syrups have DEs between what?
20 and 37
Medium-conversion syrups have DEs between what?
38 and 58
High-conversion syrups have DEs between what?
58 to 73
Very high-conversion syrups have DEs greater than what?
Can regular glucose corn syrups be used in candies and confections?
Yes, but low-conversion glucose corn syrups are much more suitable.
Why are low-conversion glucose corn syrups are much more suitable for candies and confection?
They are very thick, barely sweet, and unlikely to brown or crystallize. Best for whitest, smoothest, shiniest icings, confections and fondants. They are also useful for increasing the pliability and strength of pulled and spun sugar, and preventing crystallization of frozen desserts.
Give an example of low-conversion glucose syrup.
Where is Glucose Crystal from?
Imported from France and also highly refined, giving it a crystal-clear appearance and a premium price.
What is dark corn syrup?
Regular light glucose corn syrup with added molasses or refiner's syrup, caramel coloring, and flavoring.
Example of dark glucose corn syrup.
Karl dark corn syrup, which also contains salt and an antimicrobial agent.
Can dark glucose corn syrup be used as an inexpensive substitute for molasses in baked goods and confections?
Yes, although it is much milder tasting than most molasses syrups.
Is perfect fudge smooth and creamy?
Like fondant and other crystalline confections, fudge consists of many microscopic what?
Microscopic crystals suspended in a thin layer of syrup.
What do the crystals and syrup provide in crystalline confections?
Crystals provide the body and bulk while the syrup provides a smooth creaminess and shine.
What happens if too few or too many crystals form in fudge?
Too few and fudge is soft and sticky; too many and fudge feels gritty.
Trick to creating smooth, creamy fudge: thermometer.
Thermometer best determines when fudge is properly cooked at 238-240ºF (114-116ºC).
How is cream of tartar used to create great fudge?
COT is an acid, and the combo of heat and acid breaks down a certain amount of sucrose into invert sugar--equal parts fructose and glucose.
Why are fructose and glucose considered interfering agents?
Their very presence interferes with the growth of large, gritty crystals or sucrose.
Disadvantage of relying on acid to invert sugar is what? How do you eliminate this?
The process is difficult for pastry chefs to control. Too little inversion and the fudge is dull, hard and gritty; too much and the fudge may not crystallized set up. This guess work is eliminated by simply adding a measured amount of invert syrup or glucose corn syrup.
What type of glucose corn syrup is best for fudge? Why?
Low-conversion GCS, one that is low in sugar and high in higher saccharides, is best to use as an interfering agent in fudge and other confections. Higher saccharides thicken the sugar mixture, greatly slowing crystallization.
What happens if you add too much low-conversion GCS to fudge?
Adding too much prevents so much crystallization that fudge takes on the consistency of chewy icing.
High fructose corn syrup is one of the newer corn syrups. What's it called in Canada?
When was high fructose corn syrup popularized? Why?
1970s and 1980s, when high sugar prices and improved syrup quality made it the standard sweetener in the US for carbonated beverages.
Do the most common HFCS contains equal parts fructose and glucose?
Yes, but other versions of HFCS contain up to 90% fructose.
While most bakers and pastry chefs don't use HFCS, it is useful to know what?
That it is a high-quality, low-price substitute for invert syrup.
What is honey?
Flower nectar collected and processed by honeybees.
Was honey probably the first sweetener?
Honey remained the primary sweetener in Europe for thousands of years until what?
The use of sugar became widespread in the 1700s.
How is honey harvested?
After it is collected from beehives, it is separated from the honeycomb, heated to dissolve crystals and destroy spoilage yeast, and filtered to remove impurities.
Is honey sold mostly ad syrup?
Yes, but honey cream is available as well, consisting of tiny crystals suspended in concentrated syrup.
Is honey sometimes called natural invert syrup? Why?
Yes, because enzymes in the honeybee invert sucrose in the nectar to fructose and glucose.
How is honey like invert syrup?
Very sweet, browns easily, and has the ability to keep baked goods and icings soft and moist.
Honeys are named for what?
The flower that the nectar is collected from.
The most common honey throughout the world is what?
Sweet clover honey, but others--orange blossom and tupelo--are also popular.
True of false: Many expensive specialty honeys are available, but they should be considered flavoring agents and not to be used in general baking.
What two forms of honey are appropriate for baking? What's the difference?
Either clover honey or baker's honey. Baker's honey is a relatively inexpensive blend that has a darker color and stronger flavor than straight clover honey.
How is maple syrup made?
Boiling and evaporating the sap of the sugar maple tree, which begins to flow in early spring.
Where is maple syrup produced?
Throughout northeastern United States and southeastern Canada, where over 80% of the world's supply of maple syrup is produced.
Like jaggery and other unrefined non centrifugal sugars, maple syrup is often what?
Boiled in pans, often wood fire.
How much of the sugar maple tree's sap is sugar?
2 to 3% - 40 gallons are needed to produce 1 gallon of maple syrup.
National Honey Board recommends the following substitution for using honey in place of granulated sugar. This substitution accounts for the amount of water in honey and its intense sweetness.
Use 1 pound of honey in place of 1 pound granulated sugar; reduce water (or other liquid) in formula by 2.5-3 ounces. Or, use 500 grams honey in place of 500 grams granulated sugar; reduce water (or other liquid) in the formula by 80-95 grams.
How does maple syrups prized and very sweet aroma develop?
Maillard reactions that occur as sap is boiled over high heat.
How is inexpensive pancake syrup made?
From glucose corn syrup with added caramel coloring and maple flavoring.
Real maple syrup is graded primarily by what?
When are lighter-colored maple syrups produced in the season? Describe.
Earlier in the season, lighter flavor, and higher price. Better for candies and confections.
When are darker-colored maple syrups produced in the season? Describe.
Later in the season, have a stronger flavor, lower grade, and lower price. Better for baked goods.
Name an all-purpose maple syrup.
Grade A Medium Amber in the United States (Canada No. 1 Light).
Name two darker-colored syrups.
U.S. Grade A Dark Amber (Canada No. 1 Medium) or Grade B (Canada No. 2 Amber).
Name a lighter-colored maple syrup.
Grade A Light Amber (Canada No. 1 Extra Light).
The sugar solids in maple syrup are almost entirely what?
Sucrose, with a small amount - usually less than 10% - invert sugar.
Should you expect much softness and moisture from maple syrup?
No more than sugar and water. Instead, it's used for flavor.
How is malt syrup produced?
By malting, or sprouting, cereal grain, dissolving it in water, then concentrating it to a syrup.
Can malt syrup be made from any cereal?
Yes, just like malted flour, but barley and heat are the most common used.
What does the malting process initiate?
Many biological processes in the cereal, including breakdown of large starch molecules into sugars.
Malt syrup, which is also called malt extract, has a distinct flavor and color that is somewhat similar to what?
Unlike molasses, malt syrup is very high in what?
Maltose and, to a lesser degree, trace amounts of protein and ash, improve what? Benefits?
Yeast fermentation, one reason why malt syrup is often used in bread, bagels, biscuit, and cracker production.
What is put into water of boiled bagels for added sheen?
The two main types of malt syrup.
Diastatic and non-diastatic.
Difference between diastatic and non-diastatic malt syrup.
Diastatic contains small amounts of enzymes from the malting process. Non-diastatic malt syrup has been heated to eliminate all active enzymes, but it still contains flavor and the maltose that is characteristic of all malt syrups.
How does maltose aid in fermentation?
Sucrose, fructose and glucose are all quickly broken down and fermented by yeast in early stages of bulk fermentation. Lactose generally is not fermented at all, while maltose is fermented slowly. By including maltose, yeast food is available through final proof, and ensures adequate gassing during this critical stage. The result is properly leavened bread.
What are other good sources of maltose besides malt syrups?
Malted barley flour and certain glucose syrups.
Dextrose is another name for what?
Glucose, when the monosaccharide is purchased dry as sugar.
Is dextrose sold as crystals and pulverized powder?
Is dextrose less sweet than sucrose? When is it useful?
Yes, and is useful when the properties of sugar are desired, but the sweetness is not.
Does dextrose increase the shel-life of confections?
Yes, because it is more effective at inhibiting microbial growth than sucrose.
owdered dextrose is also called what? Is i better than powdered sugar? Why?
Dusting sugar or doughnut sugar, is superior to powdered sugar at dusting and coating doughnuts and plated desserts. It does not dissolve easily, even when finely pulverized, so it is less likely to liquefy when exposed to heat and humidity.
Should you expect a different flavor from dextrose? Explain.
Yes, especially when undissolved. Dextrose is less sweet thank sucrose, and dextrose crystals provide a cooling sensation when they melt in the mouth.
Does dusting sugar contain other ingredients besides dextrose? Benefits and downfalls?
It may contain other ingredients such as vegetable oil. VO helps the sugar adhere to doughnuts and baked goods, but it changes mouthfeel and produces an off flavor as it ages and oxidizes.
Dried glucose syrup is also called what?
Corn syrup solids or glucose solids.
What is dried glucose syrup?
Glucose corn syrup with most of its water removed (only 7% or less remaining).
Example of dextrose being useful in chocolate.
Dextrose provides bulk without much sweetness in chocolates and chocolate products.
Are there many different types of dried glucose syrups?
Where is dried glucose corn syrup used? Example.
Wherever the functionality of glucose corn syrup is needed without added water. For example, DGCS can provide added body to the mouthfeel of ice cream and other frozen desserts.
What is fondant sugar?
Extremely fine powdered or icing sugar, as much as 100 times finer than 10X sugar.
What is fondant sugar ideal for? Why? Does it contain cornstarch?
Preparing the smoothest fondant, glaze or cream praline centers without cooking. It provides a higher sheen than regular powdered sugars, and because it generally doesn't contain cornstarch, it exhibits no raw stack taste.
Example of fondant sugar.
Fondant sugar may contain ingredients such as maltodextrin for what purpose?
Reduce stickiness and improve icing's ability to adhere to baked goods.
Why does dextrose cool the tongue?
Dextrose crystals require a relatively large amount of energy to dissolve, because they are held together with strong bonds. When placed in the mouth, energy needed comes from the heat of the mouth. So much heat is needed the the temperature inside the mouth drops briefly, creating a cooling sensation.
How is prepared fondant sold?
As soft cream or as firm sheets or rolls (mass Ticino).
Although it can be made from scratch, fondant requires what to prepare?
Time and skill.
What is cream fondant used for?
Warmed and thinned, is used for glazing doughnuts, petit fours, and other baked goods. It also serves as a base for cream praline centers and for uncooked icings. Rolled fondant is primarily used for wedding cakes.
To use prepared cream fondant as a simple icing or glaze, what do you do?
Warm it gently to 98-100ºF (37-38ºC).
What can be used to thin prepared cream fondant?
Simple syrup, pasteurized egg white, flavored liqueur, or any other liquid to thin it before use.
What happens if you heat fondant above recommended amount? Why?
The soft, smooth consistency and attractive sheen will disappear. This is because small sugar crystals will melt, only to reform as large, coarse crystals on cooling.
When warming fondant, why should you always use a double boiler?
The fondant will soften without exceeding the critical 98-100º F (37-38ºCº).
What is isomalt? How long has it been around?
A relatively new sweetener made by chemically modifying sucrose. Isomalt is not found in nature. It has been approved for use in the United States since 1990.
Isomalt is sold in what form?
White powder or small beads.
Advantages of isomalt over sucrose?
It does not easily brown, pick of moisture, or crystallize and grain, so sugar work remains relatively dry and white.
Does isomalt have the same melt-in-the-mouth feeling as sucrose?
Is isomalt used as a bulking agent in low-calorie and "sugar-free" hard candies and confections?
What's sweeter, isomalt or sucrose?
Isomalt is half as sweet as sucrose.
Is isomalt classified as sugar? Explain.
Although it sweetens and is derived from sugar, chemically isomalt is not sugar. It is classified as a polyol, a type of sugar.
What are polyols?
Also known as sugar alcohols, although they are neither sugars nor alcohols. Like sugar, polyols are carbohydrates.
Are there many different types of polyols?
Just as there are many different types of sugars, so too are there many different types of polyols.
Polls are purchased in what form?
Some as liquid syrups, others as dry crystals.
Examples of polyols.
Sorbitol, glycerine (glycerol), maltitol, mannitol, and xylitol.
In general, polls provide sweetness and bulk and certain other functions of sugar, except what?
Lower in calories than sugar and don't promote tooth decay.
Products sweetened exclusively with polyols can be labeled as what?
Why can products made with polyols be useful for diabetics or reduced calorie diets?
Because they are not readily absorbed by the body.
Do most polyols have a laxative effect?
Yes, especially when consumed in large amounts.
What is the closest polyol to sugar in taste and other properties that can be used in a one-to-one replacement?
Glycerine and sorbitol have been used by pastry chefs and confectioners for years to do what?
They are both hygroscopic, and add softness and moistness to confections.
What does xylitol provide? Most common application?
Like dextrose, provides a cooling sensation when used in crystalline form. Its most common application is sugar-free gum.
While some polyols are not found in nature, others are. Explain using plums.
Isomalt is not found in nature but dried out plums (prunes) contain 15% sorbitol.
What does the high amount of sorbitol in prunes do for baked goods?
In addition to even higher amounts of glucose and fructose, make dried plums - and the baked goods they're added to - soft and moist.
Fructose is sometimes called what?
Levulose or fruit sugar.
While it is present in many syrups, can fructose also be purchased in crystal form?
Yes, dry, white crystals.
Crystalline fructose is expensive, but has a clean, distinct sweetness that compliments what?
Commercially, fructose is produced from what?
High fructose corn syrup.
Is fructose considered sweeter than sucrose?
Yes, so generally less is needed.
Crystalline fructose is most commonly used in what?
Fruit-based desserts, sorbets, and confections.
Agave syrup is made from what?
Sap of the agave, a succulent plant farmed in Mexico.
How is agave syrup made?
The core of the agave is heated and sap pressed from the plant.
Agave sap contains what polysaccharide?
Inulin, along with smaller amounts of glucose and fructose.
Heat and/or other enzymes break down inulin to what?
Fructose, much as starch is broken down to glucose in the making of glucose corn syrup.
Can enzymes also convert glucose to fructose in the same way that HFCS is made from GCS?
Yes, the sap can be clarified, filtered and concentrated.
There are several brands of agave syrup, also called agave _______, on the market.
Describe agave syrups on market.
Some are dark in color and strong in flavor while others are highly refined and pale in color.
Some are made from organically grown agave and marketed as raw food, which means what?
It has not been heated above 120ºF (50ºC).
Raw foods retain their what?
Heat-sensitive nutrients and natural enzyme activity.
Do agave syrups vary in the amount of fructose that they contain? Why do these variances occur?
Yes, much like HFCS. Variances occur because of differences in how sap is processed or because of differences in the amount of fructose-containing inulin naturally present in agave.
Only agave plant allowed in making tequila.
Why is blue agave syrup typically more expensive than other agave syrups?
It's naturally high in inulin.
There are few, if any, _______ _____________ present in various brands of agave syrups, making them easy to use because they are very thin and pourable.
Besides containing ____ - ____% fructose, agave syrups contains varying amounts of the monosaccharide _________.
What does more fructose and less glucose in agave syrup mean more crystallization?
Less likely to crystallize and sweeter.
Are agave syrups, especially those high in fructose, said to have low-glycemic response?
Rice syrup is made from what?
Rice starch, much as GCS is made from cornstarch.
Does rice syrup usually undergo less refining than GCS?
Yes, so it has a brownish tan color and a distinct flavor.
Because it is less refined than many other sweeteners, rice syrup is marketed as a sweetener to who?
The health food industry.
High-intensity sweeteners are sometimes called what?
Nonnutritive or artificial sweeteners.
High-intensity sweeteners are how much sweeter than sugar?
Typically 200X sweeter.
What one function do high-intensity sweeteners provide?
High-intensity sweeteners are largely unsuitable for what?
Pastry and bakery products, which rely on sugar for many functions besides sweetness.
What is the glycemic response?
Term that refer to how fast sugars - and foods containing sugar - breakdown during digestion and provide energy to the body. The faster carbohydrates in a food product are digested, the faster they raise blood sugar levels and the higher the glycemic index response.
Four most common high-intensity sweeteners in America.
Saccharin, the sweetener in Sweet 'n' Low; aspartame, also known as NutraSweet and Equal; acesulfame potassium, more commonly known by its brand names Sunett and Sweet One; and sucralose, also known as Splenda.
What is a fifth sweetener? When was in approved?
Neotame was approved in 2002 but is not yet in general use.
Of the five high-intensity sweeteners, what is the best choice for baking? Why?
Splenda. Unlike aspartame, for example, sucralose does not lose its sweetness from heat in the oven. Its safety is also less in question by consumers.
Besides containing sucralose, Splenda contains ______ as a bulking agent.
The maltodextrin-sucralose blend in Splenda can substitute ___ for ___ for sucrose (by volume, not weight).
one for one
Do maltodextrins have some of the properties of sugar? Does Splenda provide enough of the sugar properties for baking? Any differences?
Yes, so Splenda provides some of the properties of the volume, tenderness, and browning of sugar. Start with a one for one ratio of Splenda for sugar, but expect some differences in appearance, taste, and texture in the finished product. By adjusting levels of Splenda and other ingredients, an acceptable, if not identical, product can be made.
What is stevia?
A sweet herb that grows in South and Central America. It has been used for centuries by native Americans and Paraguay and Brazil to sweeten beverages.
What forms is stevia sold in?
Dry herb to a concentrated liquid extract.
Describe stevia's flavor.
It has a long-lingering sweetness, and at high levels, is bitter.
Is stevia available in the US?
Yes, as a dietary supplement but is not allowed to be added to food products sold in this country.
What countries won't allow stevia to be added in food? Which will?
US, Canada, Australia, and European Unions don't allow it. China, Japan, much of Southeast Asia, and countries in South America allow its use.
Do all sugars and syrups sweeten to the same degree?
What is generally considered sweeter, fructose or sucrose?
Fructose, the other common sugars are less sweet.
Relative sweetening power depends on what?
Concentration, pH, and other factors.
Sugars, once dissolved, interfere with what?
gluten formation, protein coagulation, and starch gelatinization. In other words, sugars delay the formation of structure and, in doing so, tenderize.
Gluten, starch and egg structure all require the presence of what?
Does sugar keep water from reacting with structure builders?
Yes, its strong ability to attract water keep some water from interacting. But it's also likely sugar interacts with the structure builders as well.
What happens to structure if too much sugar is added?
Too little structure will form, and it will never use, or it will rise and collapse as it cools.
While most tender products are soft and moist, some are not. Give an example
Shortbread cookies are tender yet dry and crumbly. Sugar contributes to this form of tenderness.
How does sugar retain and improve shelf life?
The hygroscopic nature of sugars increases softness and moistness freshly baked goods. it also extends shelf life by keeping them from drying and staling.
The most hygroscopic of common sugars?
Which syrups provide the longest shelf life? Why?
Ones containing a significant amount of fructose, such as invert syrup, honey, HFCS, and agave syrup provide more moistness than other syrups or granulated sugar. Differences are significantly noticeable after several days of storage.
While some sweeteners, such as brown sugar, have a brown color, most sweeteners contribute through what?
Maillard reaction and caramelization.
True or false: Only a small amount of protein is needed to speed up Maillard reaction, so less heat is needed than caramelization.
If enough times occurs, can Maillard reaction occur at room temperature? Example using dry milk solids.
Yes, dry milk solids undergo Maillard browning and develop off flavors after a year or so of storage at room temperature.
Sucrose must be heated to what before it caramelizes?
Caramelized flavor is best described as what?
Maillard browning flavor is often described as what?
Roasted cocoa, roasted coffee, roasted nuts, toffee, maple syrup, and molasses.
To maple tree sap and sugar cane provide small amounts of protein for Maillard reaction?
Where do caramelized burnt sugar colors and flavors come from?
When sugars are heated, a series of chemical reactions occur that break down sugars into smaller fragments. These smaller molecules evaporate easily and trigger our sense of smell, providing wonderful aromas. With continued heating, the fragments react with one another and form large molecules called polymers. Large polymers do not evaporate, but they do absorb light, imparting a brown color. With continued heating, bitter-tasting polymers form.
What causes discoloration of white chocolate during storage of a year or more?
Maillard browning, much like milk solids.
Does Maillard browning sometimes cause discoloration and off flavor during storage? What products are most at risk?
Yes, products that contain dairy ingredients are particularly susceptible because they contain milk proteins and lactose, a sugar that browns relatively quickly.
Do monosaccharides brown faster than most disaccharides?
Yes, this is true with both caramelization and Maillard browning.
Order of fastest browning sugars. Fastest first.
Fructose, glucose, lactose, sucrose, maltose, isomalt
How to create the whitest sugar for showpieces of not using isomalt.
Start with sugar relatively free of impurities, such as coarse AA confectioners. Use water that is pure. If necessary, use distilled water, which would have a neutral pH and be free of minerals. If formulas calls for glucose corn syrup, use low-conversion syrup, which is low in sugars that brown. Add a small amount of acid, such as tartaric acid, during the last stage of cooking or after sugar is removed from heat.
Does the browning of sugar increase in the presence of salt and certain minerals? Name three minerals.
Yes, including copper, iron and lead.
How many minerals are needed to significantly increase browning?
Very little, parts per million.
Where are minerals present?
Some water supplies, in unrefined syrups (malt, molasses, maple, honey, rice), and in salt.
Do acids and alkali affect browning?
Yes, by their affect on pH.
Why is a small amount of baking soda usually added to baked goods?
It increases pH and creates more browning.
Do buttermilk and cream of tartar increase or decrease browning?
They are acidic and decrease browning.
Why is water often a factor in browning?
Because it usually contains, acids, alkalis and minerals.
Is there air between sugar crystals? What about syrups?
Yes, there is air between crystals, which are irregular in shape, while there is little or no air in syrups.
Is air one of the three main leavening gases?
Whenever dry sugar is added to batters and doughs is air also added? What about creaming fat?
Yes, this is also true when fats are creamed with sugar.
True or false: only dry sugars, not syrups, assist in leavening in this (air between crystals) manner.
Do sugar crystals provide bulk and substance to fondant, confections, and certain other products?
Explain how sugar crystals provide bulk and substance to fondant and confections.
Consider that fondant contains 90% or more crystallized sugar. Without them, fondant would consist of liquid syrup. While sugar is not considered a structure builder in baked goods, in fondant and other products that contain sugar crystals, the solid crystals do provide substance. This substance defines the size and shape of these products. In this sense, solid sugar crystals do provide a type of structure.
All common sugars except what are fermented by yeast?
What three sugars are fermented more quickly than maltose?
Sucrose, fructose and glucose.
What sweeteners add not only sweetness, but flavor?
Brown sugar, honey, maple syrup, malt syrup, rice syrup, dark agave syrup, molasses, and dark glucose corn syrup.
Sweeteners that are neutral in flavor.
Granulated sugar, powdered sugar, light glucose corn syrup, and invert syrup.
Does sugar reduce iciness and hardness in frozen desserts? How?
Yes, sugar lowers the freezing point by holding on to water and interfering with the formation of ice crystals.
What is more effective at lowering freezing point, mono or disaccharides?
Are thick syrups, such as low-conversion glucose corn syrups, good at preventing iciness in frozen desserts? Why?
Yes, the large high-saccharides in low-conversion glucose corn syrups interfere with ice crystal formation by preventing water molecules from easily moving around. This limits water's growth into large, sharp ice crystals.
Do most syrups contain some acid? What about fry sugars?
Yes, while dry sugars do not.
The acid in syrups, when mixed with baking soda in baked goods, produces what?
Carbon dioxide for leavening.
pH of honey is typically what?
National Honey Board recommends using how much baking soda to neutralize the acid in one cup (12oz/340g) of honey?
1/2 teaspoon (1.2 milliliters)
When used at low levels, are sugars a source of food for microorganisms?
When used at high levels, are sugars a source of food for microorganisms?
No, they have the opposite effect and act as preservatives. This is why rich, sweet doughs ferment and proof more slowly than those with less sugar.
How do syrups add a glossy sheen to icings and many confections?
They form a smooth, mirror-like surface over the jagged irregularity of sugar crystals.
How does sugar create a crisp crust on certain baked goods?
The cracked, crisp crust forms when moisture evaporates and sugars crystallize.
What keeps baked goods soft and moist while interfering with sugar crystallization?
Hygroscopic sweeteners, such as fructose, sorbitol, invert syrup, and honey.
Why do finer sugars promote more spread in cookies?
Because they dissolve sooner, and only dissolved sugars tenderize and thin out doughs
Does powdered sugar help or stop spread in cookies?
If it contains cornstarch, it will prevent the spread of cookies.
How do sugar help cookies spread?
Sugar keeps proteins, starches, and gums from hydrating and absorbing liquids and interferes with their ability to form structure. This means cookie dough will thin out until proteins coagulate.
Should all sweeteners be covered when stored? Why?
Yes, to prevent picking up odors, gaining or losing moisture.
What should you do when powdered or brown sugar clumps?
Pass it through a sieve. Make sure you gently warm the brown sugar first in the oven or microwave.
How long is the shelf life of dry sugar?
Unlimited when stored properly.
Shelf life of syrups such as invert syrup and some glucose corn syrups.
Some syrups darken after too long of a shelf life, particularly when temperatures are warm.
Should you throw away light syrups when they darken?
No, use them in darker products.
How should syrups high in moisture be stored?
Maple and simple syrup must be refrigerated to prevent mold growth. It is best not to refrigerate other syrups.
Why is it best not to refrigerate syrups (other than simple or maple) that aren't high in moisture?
Refrigeration causes syrups high in glucose to crystallize. This occurs with honey, invert syrup, and high fructose corn syrup.
What should you do if syrup does crystallize?
Stir well to distribute the crystals evenly throughout. While it's generally unnecessary to heat syrup to dissolve crystals, you can do this--be sure to heat gently.
Honey's flavor may be damaged in excess of what temp?
Above 160ºF (70ºC)
Most syrups contain water ratio of sugar to water?
80 sugar:20 water
To substitute syrup for granulated sugar.
Divide the weight of sugar by 0.80 to determine the weight of syrup to use. Reduce the amount of water or other liquid by the difference between the two. (16oz sugar uses 20oz of syrup while subtracting 4oz of liquid)