CHAPTER 9: THICKENING AND GELLING AGENTS Flashcards Preview

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1

The simplest way to thicken food is what?

Add an ingredient that is thickened or gelled itself.

2

Name some (8) ingredients that can be added to thicken food.

Heavy cream, sour cream, many cheeses, jams and jellies, fruit purees, thick syrups, yogurt, and buttermilk.

3

Do these ingredients only thicken?

No, they add flavor, alter appearance, and they contribute to the nutritional value of a final product.

4

What ingredients are added exclusively to thicken and gel?

Gelatin, vegetable gums, and starches.

5

How do gelatin, vegetable gums, and starches function in thickening and gelling?

Absorbing or trapping large amounts of water.

6

Most common thickening agent in a bakeshop that is not often thought as one.

Egg

7

What is an emulsion of butterfat droplets in milk?

Heavy cream.

8

What are other ways to thicken and gel food products besides adding an ingredient? Example.

Emulsions or foams provides thickening and sometimes gelling. Whipping heavy cream causes it to foam and thicken.

9

What one thing do thickening and gelling agents (gelatin, starch, vegetable gums) have in common?

They are all composed of very large molecules.

10

Are starches and gums polysaccharides? What are gelatins?

Yes, while gelatins are proteins.

11

What are polysaccharides?

Many (poly) sugar molecules (saccharides) linked to the next.

12

Often ________ of molecules are linked together in a single polysaccharide molecule.

thousands

13

Sometimes, are all sugar molecules in a polysaccharide the same?

Yes, but often there is a mix of two or more different sugars.

14

What distinguishes one polysaccharide from another?

The type of sugar that makes it up, how many are linked together, and how they are linked.

15

Do starch and inulin differ in their amount of sugars?

Yes, starch usually contains thousands of sugar units while inulin has 60 at most.

16

What is a more effective thickening, starch or inulin? Why?

Starch has more sugar units making it a much more effective thickener.

17

Very large molecules made of many amino acids linked one to the next.

Proteins

18

Often, how many amino acids are linked together in a single protein molecule?

Thousands

19

More than ____ common amino acids make up proteins.

20

20

What distinguishes one protein from another?

The number and arrangement of these amino acids within the protein molecule.

21

What occurs when water and other molecules or particles in a product move around rather slowly? Examples.

Thickening. Polysaccharides and proteins bump and entangle, water is absorbed and trapped by starch granules, or air bubbles (in foams) or fat droplets (in emulsions) slow water.

22

What occurs when water and other molecules in a product are prevented from moving around at all? Examples.

Gelling. When large molecules, such as protein and polysaccharides, bond with one another, forming a large we or network that traps water and other molecules. Also happens when extremely large amount of air bubbles or fat droplets are incorporated into food.

23

Do some thickening and gelling agents do both? Explain.

Yes, gelatin, cornstarch, and pectin thicken when used at low levels and gel when used at higher levels.

24

What happens if you use ingredients other than cornstarch, pectin or gelatin for gelling? Examples.

Other ingredients will only thicken, not gel. Instead, they will get thicker and gummier. Examples include guar gum, gum arabic, and waxy maize starch.

25

When properly prepared, gelatin form what?

An appealing crystal-clear gel with bounce back and spring. Best of all, gelatin melts quickly and cleanly in the mouth.

26

Is gelatin necessary in Bavarian creams, fruit mousses and cold soufflés?

Yes

27

Gelatin is a good stabilizer for what?

Whipped creams and many cakes fillings.

28

Gelatin provides the characteristic texture of what?

Marshmallows and many gummy confections.

29

Gelatin mixtures, when cooled to thicken, can be _________, much as egg whites can be.

whipped

30

What is gelatin?

An animal protein.