Chapter 51 Circulation & Cardiovascular Function Flashcards Preview

Fundamentals Exam 3 > Chapter 51 Circulation & Cardiovascular Function > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 51 Circulation & Cardiovascular Function Deck (47):
1

Blood Entering the Heart

Blood enters R atrium, then to R ventricle, and flows out through the pulmonary artery to lungs to pick up oxygen and get rid of carbon dioxide.

2

Blood Returning to the Heart

Blood returns to L atrium, then to L ventricle, and pumped to the body through the aorta.

3

What are elastic muscular vessels that carry blood AWAY from the heart

Arteries

4

What are thin compressible vessels that carry deoxygenated blood BACK to the heart.

Veins

5

Enclosed by a double layer of fibro-serous membrane

Pericardium

6

What is the hearts Outermost layer?

Epicardium

7

Cardiac muscle cells that form bulk of the heart

Myocardium

8

Lines inside of the hearts chambers

Endocardium

9

Two lower chambers within the heart

Ventricles

10

Two upper chambers within the heart

Atria

11

Muscular wall separating the heart chambers

Septum

12

Valves between the atria and the ventricles

Atrioventricular (AV) valves

13

Valves between the ventricles and the great vessels

Semilunar Valves

14

Network of vessels that supply heart muscle with oxygen and nourishment

Coronary Arteries (aka coronary circulation)

15

*Cardiac Cycle: Within each heartbeat the myocardium goes through a cycle of?

Contraction (Systole) and Relaxation (Diastole)

16

*When the heart ejects (propels) the blood into pulmonary and systemic circulation

Systole

17

*When the ventricles fill with blood. (Pass of process)

Diastole

18

*What is the primary pacemaker of the heart? How many bpm is a regular heart rate?

SA Node; 60-100 BPM

19

*Left ventricular end diastolic volume (relaxation), stretch of the mycardium

Preload

20

*The inherent ability of cardiac muscle fibers to shorten or contract

Contractility

21

*Resistance against which the heart must pump

Afterload

22

What moves blood from the heart to the tissues, maintaining constant flow to the capillary beds despite the intermittent pumping of the heart?

Arterial Circulation

23

*What is the force exerted on arterial walls by blood flowing within the vessel

Blood Pressure

24

In contrast to the high-pressured arterial system, What is too low to adequately return blood from peripheral tissues to the heart without assistance?

Venous Pressure

25

What activity contributes to the muscular pump, as the muscle contractions "milk" blood toward the heart?

Skeletal muscle activity

26

What is a complex mixture of living elements (blood cells) suspended in fluid (the plasma):

Blood

27

What is a major component of RBC's, and is the predominant cell present in the blood?

Hemoglobin

28

What are 5 Problems of circulation in older adults?

1. Blood vessels become less elastic 2. Impaired valve function 3. Decrease of muscle tone 4. Decrease in baroreceptor response to BP changes 5. Decrease in conduction ability in the heart.

29

Factors Affecting Cardiovascular Function: Name 3 Non-Modifiable risk factors

Heredity, age, and gender

30

Factors Affecting Cardiovascular Function: Name 6 Modifiable Risk Factors

Elevated serum lipid levels, Hypertension, Cigarette Smoking, Diabetes, Obesity, Sedentary Lifestyle.

31

Name Good Cholesterol and lab values:

HDL >45 in Male and >55 in Female

32

Name Bad Cholesterol and the lab value:

LDL 60-180

33

*Cluster of cardiovascular risk factors that increase the incidence of CVD.

Metabolic Syndrome

34

*5 risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome?

Central obesity, increased triglycerides, low HDL, cholesterol, hypertension, and elevated fasting glucose.

35

*Screening test for inflammatory process in Cardiovascular disease?

C-Reactive Protein

36

*An amino acid that has been shown to be increased in many people with arteriosclerosis.

Elevated Homocysteine level

37

*Clients with elevated homocysteine levels may have an increased risk of?

MI, CVD, cerebrovascular accident (stroke), and peripheral vascular disease.

38

Cardiovascular function can be altered by conditions that affect?

The function of the heart as a pump, blood flow to organs and peripheral tissues, and the composition of the blood and its ability to transport O2 and CO2

39

The vessels that supply blood o the heart muscle may become occluded by artheriosclerosis or a blood clot, shutting off the blood supply to a portion of the myocardium. When this happens, the tissue becomes necrotic and dies

Myocardial Infarction

40

Signs and Symptoms of a Myocardial Infarction?

Chest pain (sub sternal or radiating to the left arm, jaw.), Nausea, SOB, Diaphoresis

41

What may develop if the heart is unable to keep up with the body's need for O2 and nutrients to the tissues?

Heart Failure

42

Why does heart failure usually occur?

HF usually occurs because of MI, but it may also result from chronic overwork of the heart, such as clients with uncontrolled HTN or extensive artheriosclerosis.

43

Two forms of Impaired Tissue Perfusion?

Artheriosclerosis: Build up of fatty plaques within the arteries.
Ischemia: Lack of blood supply

44

Signs of impaired peripheral arterial circulation in the legs and feet?

Decreased peripheral pulses, pain, cool extremities, and decreased hair distribution.

45

What is a blood clot going into the lungs called?

Pulmonary Embolism

46

*What are the following signs of: Pooling blood in the veins, Edema, decrease venous return to the heart, veins become inflamed reducing blood flow and increasing the risk of thrombus, and Pulmonary Edema:

Impaired Venous Circulation

47

What are the following signs and symptoms of: Chronic fatigue, pallor, SOB, and hypotension

Anemia