Flashcards in Chapter 51 Circulation & Cardiovascular Function Deck (47):
Blood Entering the Heart
Blood enters R atrium, then to R ventricle, and flows out through the pulmonary artery to lungs to pick up oxygen and get rid of carbon dioxide.
Blood Returning to the Heart
Blood returns to L atrium, then to L ventricle, and pumped to the body through the aorta.
What are elastic muscular vessels that carry blood AWAY from the heart
What are thin compressible vessels that carry deoxygenated blood BACK to the heart.
Enclosed by a double layer of fibro-serous membrane
What is the hearts Outermost layer?
Cardiac muscle cells that form bulk of the heart
Lines inside of the hearts chambers
Two lower chambers within the heart
Two upper chambers within the heart
Muscular wall separating the heart chambers
Valves between the atria and the ventricles
Atrioventricular (AV) valves
Valves between the ventricles and the great vessels
Network of vessels that supply heart muscle with oxygen and nourishment
Coronary Arteries (aka coronary circulation)
*Cardiac Cycle: Within each heartbeat the myocardium goes through a cycle of?
Contraction (Systole) and Relaxation (Diastole)
*When the heart ejects (propels) the blood into pulmonary and systemic circulation
*When the ventricles fill with blood. (Pass of process)
*What is the primary pacemaker of the heart? How many bpm is a regular heart rate?
SA Node; 60-100 BPM
*Left ventricular end diastolic volume (relaxation), stretch of the mycardium
*The inherent ability of cardiac muscle fibers to shorten or contract
*Resistance against which the heart must pump
What moves blood from the heart to the tissues, maintaining constant flow to the capillary beds despite the intermittent pumping of the heart?
*What is the force exerted on arterial walls by blood flowing within the vessel
In contrast to the high-pressured arterial system, What is too low to adequately return blood from peripheral tissues to the heart without assistance?
What activity contributes to the muscular pump, as the muscle contractions "milk" blood toward the heart?
Skeletal muscle activity
What is a complex mixture of living elements (blood cells) suspended in fluid (the plasma):
What is a major component of RBC's, and is the predominant cell present in the blood?
What are 5 Problems of circulation in older adults?
1. Blood vessels become less elastic 2. Impaired valve function 3. Decrease of muscle tone 4. Decrease in baroreceptor response to BP changes 5. Decrease in conduction ability in the heart.
Factors Affecting Cardiovascular Function: Name 3 Non-Modifiable risk factors
Heredity, age, and gender
Factors Affecting Cardiovascular Function: Name 6 Modifiable Risk Factors
Elevated serum lipid levels, Hypertension, Cigarette Smoking, Diabetes, Obesity, Sedentary Lifestyle.
Name Good Cholesterol and lab values:
HDL >45 in Male and >55 in Female
Name Bad Cholesterol and the lab value:
*Cluster of cardiovascular risk factors that increase the incidence of CVD.
*5 risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome?
Central obesity, increased triglycerides, low HDL, cholesterol, hypertension, and elevated fasting glucose.
*Screening test for inflammatory process in Cardiovascular disease?
*An amino acid that has been shown to be increased in many people with arteriosclerosis.
Elevated Homocysteine level
*Clients with elevated homocysteine levels may have an increased risk of?
MI, CVD, cerebrovascular accident (stroke), and peripheral vascular disease.
Cardiovascular function can be altered by conditions that affect?
The function of the heart as a pump, blood flow to organs and peripheral tissues, and the composition of the blood and its ability to transport O2 and CO2
The vessels that supply blood o the heart muscle may become occluded by artheriosclerosis or a blood clot, shutting off the blood supply to a portion of the myocardium. When this happens, the tissue becomes necrotic and dies
Signs and Symptoms of a Myocardial Infarction?
Chest pain (sub sternal or radiating to the left arm, jaw.), Nausea, SOB, Diaphoresis
What may develop if the heart is unable to keep up with the body's need for O2 and nutrients to the tissues?
Why does heart failure usually occur?
HF usually occurs because of MI, but it may also result from chronic overwork of the heart, such as clients with uncontrolled HTN or extensive artheriosclerosis.
Two forms of Impaired Tissue Perfusion?
Artheriosclerosis: Build up of fatty plaques within the arteries.
Ischemia: Lack of blood supply
Signs of impaired peripheral arterial circulation in the legs and feet?
Decreased peripheral pulses, pain, cool extremities, and decreased hair distribution.
What is a blood clot going into the lungs called?
*What are the following signs of: Pooling blood in the veins, Edema, decrease venous return to the heart, veins become inflamed reducing blood flow and increasing the risk of thrombus, and Pulmonary Edema:
Impaired Venous Circulation