Chapter 52: An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere Flashcards Preview

Bio 94: Exam 3 > Chapter 52: An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 52: An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere Deck (49)
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1

What is ecology?

The study of the relationships among organisms and the environment 

2

Ecologists study ecology in a hierarchy. What are the components of the hierarchy?

Organism
Population
Community
Ecosystem
Biosphere

3

What is organism ecology?

Study of the organism's behavior, structure, and physiology.

4

What is population?

A population consists of interbreeding organisms of one species occupying the same area at the same time

5

What is community?

A community includes all populations, representing multiple species in the same region.

6

What is ecosystem?

An ecosystem is the biotic (living) community plus the abiotic (no living) environment.

7

What is the biosphere?

The biosphere is all parts of the planet where life exists

8

Who said "Climate is what we expect; weather is what we get"?

Mark Twain

9

What do weather and climate involve?

The physical properties of the troposphere
- temperature, pressure, humidity, cloudiness and wind.

10

What is weather?

Specific atmospheric conditions over short time periods within small geographic areas

11

What is climate?

Patterns of atmospheric conditions across large geographic regions over long period of time

12

Why are the temperatures coldest at the poles of the earth?

The earth's surface is curved, meaning that the sun's rays are spread over a greater surface area with increasing distance from the equator.

13

What accounts for the different seasons of earth?

The tilt of the earth's axis (two hemispheres)

14

All regions of the earth are experiencing 12 hours of daylight and 12 hours of darkness. What part of the earth is facing the sun?

The equator (Neither poles are facing the earth)

15

The Northern Hemisphere has the shortest day and longest night; the Southern Hemisphere has the longest day and shortest night. Which Hemisphere is tilting towards the sun?

The Southern Hemisphere

16

The Northern Hemisphere has the longest day and shortest night; the Southern Hemisphere has the shortest day and longest night. Which Hemisphere is tilting towards the sun?

The Northern Hemisphere

17

Which months of the year does the equator face the sun?

March and September

18

Which month of the year does the Northern Hemisphere face the sun?

June

19

Which month of the year does the Southern Hemisphere face the sun?

December

20

Why are some areas of the Earth moist and others are dry?

Air circulation

21

Why is the air around the equator typically warm and moist?

The equator receives the most heat from the sun and evaporates the water, forming clouds rang release abundant rain.

22

What latitude does dry air descend around?

30° latitude
(Absorbs moisture from the land)
(Desserts here)

23

What are the air conditions like at 60° latitude?

The air mass has warmed and absorbed enough moisture from the land to rise and cause precipitation (England)

24

Where does cold, dry air descend?

At the poles

25

________ also influence climate. Most precipitation falls on the _______ side.

Mountains; upwind

26

What are biomes?

Ecosystems with distinctive communities of life

27

What are the two main factors that determine the dominant plants in each biome?

Temperature and moisture

28

List the 8 different biomes.

1. Tropical forest
2. Savanna
3. Desert
4. Chaparral
5. Temperate grassland
6. Temperate forest
7. Northern coniferous forest
8. Tundra

29

Describe the life in tropical rainforests.

- high temperature all year around
- trees that grow above a cloud canopy
- shrubs and herbs, broadleaf evergreens
- succulent plants

Diverse animals!
- mammals, amphibians, reptiles, birds, arthropods

30

Describe the life in a Savanna.

- warm all year around
- scattered trees, a lot of grass
- fires common
- grass grows rapidly in rain

Animals
- large plant eating mammals