# Chapter 54: Physical Principles Flashcards

1
Q

May be a pure element, in which atoms are the same, or a compound of different atoms

A

Molecule

2
Q

Explains that there are three states of matter

A

Molecular theory

3
Q

State of matter with a condensed structure in which strong intermolecular bonds determine a definite shape and volume

A

Solid

4
Q

State of matter composed of molecules that move freely, have no definite volume, and are without definite shape

A

Liquid

5
Q

State of matter that is compressible and completely fills an enclosed space

A

Gas

6
Q

State of matter with strong intermolecular bonds

A

Solid

7
Q

State of matter that is dense than gases and are fluid

A

Liquid

8
Q

State of matter with weak intermolecular bonds and are fluid

A

Gas

9
Q

A hot ionized gas consisting of approximately equal numbers of positively charged ions and negatively charged electrons. Often considered a fourth state of matter

A

Plasma (ex. sun, lightning)

10
Q

Units of measurement

A

Lenth - Meter - m
Mass - Kilogram - kg
Time - Second - s
Temperature - Kelvin - k
Force - Newton - N
Pressure - Pascal - Pa
Work - Joule - J
Frequency - Hertz - Hz

11
Q

Common unit of measurement for pressure for gases

A

cm H2O

12
Q

Common unit of measurement for pressure for liquids

A

mm Hg

13
Q

A dot over a symbol represents

A

The rate of change (distance over time or velocity)

14
Q

The amount of a substance, determined by the number and type of molecules

A

Mass

15
Q

The measurement of the pull of gravity on an object

A

Weight

16
Q

Measured on a scale

A

Weight

17
Q

Measured by using a balance comparing a known amount of matter to an unknown amount of matter

A

Mass

18
Q

A mechanical energy applied to the body. The product of mass times acceleration

A

Force (F = m x a)

19
Q

Describes the force due to to the acceleration of gravity acting on a mass. Mass times gravity

A

Weight (W = m x g)

20
Q

A force applied to an area

A

Stress

21
Q

Force applied at an angle

A

Shear stress

22
Q

(Force per area) is the same concept applied to fluids, including gases.

A

Pressure (P = F / A)

23
Q

Pressure generated by the weight of atmospheric gas above the barometer at any altitude. Drops when there is an increase in elevation

A

Atmospheric Pressure

24
Q

The physical deformation of a structure, usually caused by stress

A

Strain

25
Q

The reversible deformability that can be generated by stress, yet, it returns to its original form

A

Elasticity

26
Q

State of matter that is highly elastic and can be compressed relatively easily

A

Gas

27
Q

State of matter that is less elastic and behaves as if it is incompressible

A

Liquid

28
Q

The resistance to movement between adjacent fluid molecules

A

Viscosity

29
Q

State of matter that lacks elasticity

A

Solid

30
Q

Term for when the weight of a fluid generates static fluid pressure due to the force gravity

A

Hydrostatic Pressure

31
Q

Fluid exits capillary since capillary hydrostatic pressure is greater than blood colloidal osmotic pressure

A

Filtration

32
Q

No movement of fluid since capillary hydrostatic pressure is the same as the blood colloidal osmotic pressure

A

No net movement

33
Q

Fluid re-enters capillary since capillary hydrostatic pressure is less than blood colloidal osmotic pressure

A

Reabsorption

34
Q

Hydrostatic Pressure equation

A

P = h x p x g

P = Pressure
h = height
p = density
g = acceleration of gravity

35
Q

Volume change caused by pressure change/stiffness of sphere

A

Compliance

36
Q

Reciprocal of compliance. Returns to its original shape

A

Elastance

37
Q

Law stating that at equilibrium, pressure is constant throughout the fluid, if the pressure caused by the weight of the fluid is neglected. Ignores hydrostatic pressure

A

Pascal’s Law

38
Q

Law that describes the tension of the wall of a sphere or cylinder. Wall tension increases with radius. A smaller structure generates a greater inward pressure, resulting in a tendency to collapse due to surface tension

A

Laplace’s Law

T = (P x r) / 2
P = (2 x T) / r

T = Tension
P = Pressure

39
Q

The tension of the surface film of a liquid caused by the attraction of the particles in the surface layer by the bulk of the liquid, which tends to minimize surface area.

A

Surface Tension

40
Q

The amount of heat, or thermal energy, present in a system.

A

Temperature

40
Q

Reduces surface tension. Reduces the pressure required to expand an alveolus. Also reduces the pressure differences between alveoli of different diameters

A

Surfactant

41
Q

Temperature Scales

A

Absolute Zero:
F = -460
C = -273
K = 0

Oxygen Boils:
F = -297
C = -183
K = 90

Water Freezes:
F = 32
C = 0
K = 273

Normal Body Temp:
F = 98.6
C = 0
K = 310

Water Boils:
F = 212
C = 100
K = 373

42
Q

Fahrenheit to Celsius Conversion

A

C = (Fahrenheit degrees - 32) x 5/9

43
Q

Celsius to Fahrenheit Conversion

A

F = 32 + (Celsius degrees x 9/5)

44
Q

Changes in the thermal state of a system by adding or removing energy, such as when changes in pressure, volume, or temperature alter the state of a substance

A

Thermodynamics

45
Q

A change of state which requires the addition of energy (heat)

A

Endothermic

46
Q

A change of state which requires the release of energy

A

Exothermic

47
Q

Exothermic change from gas to a liquid or solid

A

Condensation

48
Q

Exothermic change from liquid to a solid

A

Freezing

49
Q

Endothermic change from a solid to a gas

A

Sublimation

50
Q

Endothermic change from a solid to a liquid

A

Melting

51
Q

Endothermic change from a liquid to a gas

A

Evaporation

52
Q

Defines the relationship between pressure, volume, temperature and the number of molecules of a gas. Pressure and volume are inversely related, whereas temperature is directly proportional to volume or pressure

A

Ideal Gas Law

(P1 x V1) / T1 = (P2 x V2) / T2

P = Pressure
V = Volume
T = Absolute Temperature

PV = nRT

P = Pressure
V = Volume
n = Number of Moles
R = Gas Constant
T = Absolute Temperature

53
Q

Law stating that volumes of gases combine chemically in volumetric proportions that are small whole numbers

A

Gary-Lussac’s Law of Combining Volumes

V = k x n
V1 / n1 = V2 / n2

V = Volume
k = Constant
n = Number of Moles

54
Q

Law states that pressure is inversely proportional to volume. If the volume of a gas is halved, pressure will double, given a constant mass and temperature

A

Boyle’s Law

P x V = k
P1 x V1 = P2 x V2

P = Pressure
V = Volume
k = Constant

55
Q

Law that predicts the effect of temperature on a fixed amount of dry gas. As the temperature increases, the volume increases because the faster molecules collide harder and push each other farther apart.

A

Charles’s Law

V = k x T
V1 / T1 = V2 / T2

V = Volume
k = Constant
T = Absolute Temperature

56
Q

Law that describes the direct relationship between pressure and temperature given a fixed mass and volume of gas

A

Gary-Lussac’s Law of Pressure and Temperature

P = k x T
P1 / T1 = P2 / T2

P = Pressure
k = Constant
T = Absolute Temperature

57
Q

Law that describes the behavior of physical mixture of gases and vapors

A

Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures

Pressure of Oxygen at 1 Atmosphere

PIO2 = FIO2 x Patm
PIO2 = 0.21 x 760 mm Hg = 160 mm Hg

PIO2 = Partial Pressure of inspired oxygen
FIO2 = Fraction of Oxygen in inspired gas
Patm = Atmospheric Pressure

58
Q

Composition of Dry Air

A

Nitrogen = 78.08 %
Oxygen = 20.95 %
Carbon Dioxide = 0.03 %
Argon = 0.93 %
Trace Gases = 0.01 %

59
Q

Calculation of Absolute Humidity

A

(16.42 - 0.73 x T) + 0.04 x T2

T = Temperature (Celsius)

60
Q

Calculation of Relative Humidity

A

(Absolute Humidity / Humidity Capacity) x 100%

61
Q

Calculation of Humidity Deficit

A

Content - Capacity at 37 degrees Celsius = Content - 43.8 mg/L

62
Q

Calculation of Body Humidity

A

(Content/Capacity) x 100% = (Content/43.8 mg/L) x 100

63
Q

The measurement of the actual amount of water vapor in the air or the mass of water present in a volume of gas, usually measured in milligrams per liter. Can be measured by weighing the water vapor extracted from air using a drying agent, or using meteorological equipment

A

Absolute Humidity