Flashcards in Chapter 57 Nursing Management: Acute Intracranial Problems Deck (16):
brain abscess, p. 1381
an accumulation of pus within the brain tissue that can result from a local or a systemic infection from another source, such as the skull, sinuses, or other structures in the head.
cerebral edema, p. 1359
increased accumulation of fluid in the extravascular spaces of brain tissue that can lead to increased intracranial pressure.
coma, p. 1359
a profound state of unconsciousness.
concussion, p. 1369
a sudden transient mechanical head injury, such as a blow or explosion, with disruption of neural activity and a change in the level of consciousness.
contusion, p. 1370
the bruising of the brain tissue within a focal area without altering the integrity of the pia mater and arachnoid layers.
diffuse axonal injury (DAI), p. 1370
Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is widespread axonal damage occurring after a mild, moderate, or severe TBI. The damage occurs primarily around axons in the subcortical white matter of the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, thalamus, and brainstem.
encephalitis, p. 1384
an acute inflammation of the brain usually caused by a virus.
epidural hematoma, p. 1370
collection of blood between the dura and inner surface of the skull, producing compression of the dura mater and thus of the brain.
Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), p. 1365
assessment tool for altered states of consciousness that evaluates motor responses, verbal responses, and eye opening.
head injury, p. 1368
Head injury includes any injury or trauma to the scalp, skull, or brain. A serious form of head injury is traumatic brain injury (TBI).
intracerebral hematoma, p. 1371
collection of blood within the parenchyma of the brain, possibly from the rupture of an intracerebral vessel at the time of a head injury.
intracranial pressure (ICP), p. 1357
the hydrostatic force measured in the brain cerebrospinal fluid compartment.
meningitis, p. 1381
an acute inflammation of the pia mater and the arachnoid membrane surrounding the brain and the spinal cord.
nuchal rigidity, p. 1382
resistance to flexion of the neck.
subdural hematoma, p. 1371
a collection of blood between the dura mater and the arachnoid layer of the meninges of the brain that is generally of venous origin, usually caused by injury.