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What is hemoglobin?

A protein in Red Blood Cells that carry oxygen.

1

What is anemia?

A condition in which the blood does not have enough healthy red blood cells.

2

What is the description of Sickle Cell Anemia?

Abnormal form of hemoglobin, more common in African Americans.
1. Red blood cells that clump together.
2. Impairs circulation
3. damages blood vessels and organs

3

What are S & S of Sickle Cell Anemia?

1. Attacks of intense pain (crisis) in arms, legs, or abdomen, due to lack of oxygen.
(heart will compensate by beating faster)
2.Chronic: Jaundice, pail/pallor

*Infections, stress, and extreme temps. may trigger crisis.

4

What is the diagnostic procedure for Sickle Cell Anemia?

Infant screening, blood smear

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What is the treatment for Sickle Cell Anemia?

1. Provide adequate oxygen, hydration and pain control
2. In extremeBlood transfusions, bone marrow transplant.

6

Prevention for Sickle Cell Anemia?

None

7

What are Neural Tube Defects?

Incomplete closure of one or more vertebrae between day 20-23 of gestation.

Ex. = Spina Bifida, meningocele, mymenengiceole

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What is the etiology of Neural Tube Defects?

Unknown.
Research shows lack of folic acid as a cause.

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S & S of Neural Tube Defects?

Sac-like protrusion,
dysfunctional bowel/bladder
partial paralysis,
club foot

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Treatment of Neural Tube Defects?

No cure. Treatment ranges from none to surgical repair and supportive measures.

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Prevention of Neural Tube Defects?

Folic acid prior to conception.

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Prognosis of Neural Tube Defects?

Spina Bifida has the best. Myelomeningocele has the worst.

13

What is Hydrocephalus?

Too much cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in ventricles of the brain. Fluid not able to drain properly.

14

What is the etiology of Hydrocephalus?

1. Genetic defect
2. Brain trauma
3. Meningitis

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S & S of Hyrdocephalus?

Enlarged head,
abnormal muscle tone,
high pitched cry.

In older children - nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, balance, coordination, and walking problems.

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Treatment and Prevention of Hyrdocephalus?

T = surgical - shunt fluid away from the ventricles to abdomen
P = prenatal care, avoid head injuries, update immunizations

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What is Cerebral Palsy?

Developmental defect do to lack of oxygen supplied to the brain.

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S & S of Cerebral Palsy?

Motion problems
Muscle contractions,
Muscle weakness,
underdeveloped limbs.
difficulty speaking
rhythmic involuntary movement of the eyeball

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Treatment and Prevention of Cerebral Palsy?

T = No cure - therapeutic treatment *Stem Cell
P = Early and good prenatal care, proper delivery care

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What is a Cleft (separation) Lip and Palate?

Cleft in lip.
Palate = hole in the middle of the roof of the mouth

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What is the etiology of Cleft Lip and Palate?

Cause unknown. Possibly maternal smoking.

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S & S of Cleft Lip and Palate?

Physical cleft lip or hole in roof of mouth.
Difficulty in nursing/eating

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Treatment and Prevention of Cleft Lip and Palate?

Treatment:
1. Surgery.
2. Feeding devices.
3. Nutritional and Speech therapy.
Prevention = avoid smoking before or during pregnancy

24

What is Tracheoesophageal Fistula (TEF) ?

Fistula = a connection of two things that are not normally connected.

TEF = Connection between esophagus and the trachea

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What is Esophageal Artesia?

Artresia = esophagus doesn't form completely so food can't reach stomach

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S & S of Tracheoesophageal Fistula (TEF) and Artresia?

Frothy white bubblers in mouth, vomiting, coughing or choking when feeding, cyanosis, dyspnea

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Treatment and Prevention of TEF and Artesia?

T = Surgery within a few days of birth.
P = None. Proper prenatal care.

28

What is Pyloric Stenosis?

Narrowing of the pylorus causing an obstruction of the flow into the small intestine which is more common in boys.

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What are S & S of Pyloric Stenosis?

1. Projectile vomiting and palpable mass in epigastrium just below rib cage.
May also have starvation and dehydration.