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Flashcards in Chapter 6 Deck (27)
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1

motherboard

the main circuit board of the computer (allows communication between many of the crucial components)

2

computer chip

a small piece of semiconducting material (silicon) on which integrated circuits are etched

3

processor (CPU)

interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate a computer

4

control unit

the component of the processor that directs and coordinates most of the operations on the computer

5

arithmetic logic unit (ALU)

performs arithmetic, comparison, and other operations

6

4 basic operations of a processor

fetching, decoding, executing, and storing

7

fetching

obtaining program or instruction form memory

8

decoding

translating the instruction into signals the computer can execute

9

excecuting

carrying out the commands

10

storing

writing results to memory

11

cloud computing

an environment of servers that house and provide access to resources users access via the internet

12

analog signals

continuous and vary in strength and quantity

13

digital signals

in one of two states: on or off

14

binary system

number system that has 2 unique digits: 0 and 1

15

bit

smallest unit of data the computer can process

16

byte

8 bits that are formed together

17

ASCII

most widely used coding scheme to represent a set of characters

18

memory

consists of electrical components that store instructions waiting to be executed by the processor, data needed by those instructions, and the results of processing the data

19

memory stores:

operating system, applications, data being processed and resulting info

20

each memory location has:

an address measured in GB or TB

21

volatile memory

loses contents when power removed (RAM)

22

nonvolatile memory

doesn't lose contents when power removed (ex. ROM, flash, CMOS)

23

RAM

main memory and consists of chips that can be read from and written by the processor and other devices

24

memory cache

high speed memory available inside the CPU in order to speed up access to data and instructions stored in RAM

25

ROM

memory chips storing permanent data/instructions (firmware)

26

flash memory

can be erased electronically and rewritten

27

access time

amount of time it takes the processor to read from memory (measured in nanoseconds)