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Flashcards in Chapter 6 Deck (27):

_____ was the first to cultivate mushrooms

- paris, france


Mushrooms have nutritional and medicinal properties such as

1. low in calories, sodium and glucose (beneficial for diabetes)
2. good source of fiber, low cholesterol and regulate blood pressure
3. provide vitamin B and D, and minerals such as potassium, phosphorous, calcium and magnesium
4. contain essential amino acids
5. contain compounds that enhance tumor fighting capabilities
6. natural anti-viral and immunity-boosting properties that are used to fight viruses


optimal ______, ______ and _____ for mycelium growth and the conditions that favor fruiting

- temperature
- moisture
- other conditions


Substrate options for mushrooms include

1. rice straw
2. wheat straw
3. coffee pulp
4. sawdust
5. cotton seed hulls
6. logs
7. corncobs
8. paper
9. horse manure


To obtain a pure culture material from the mature mushrooms are ________ and _________

- grown out
- collected from sterile media


A __________ is an organism that uses dead organic material for food (fungi on dead wood, logs, cultivated mushrooms)

- saprotroph/saprophyte/saprobe


Mushrooms do not contain _______ and therefore depend on other plant material (the substrate) for food

- chlorophyll


Cultivating mushrooms is good for farmers without a lot of _______, it is a way to extract value from ______ and other waste materials, they have a very ____ crop cycle and they can be used as a soil _______ or in some cases ________

- land
- woodlot thinning
- conditioner
- animal feed


A __________ is an organism that can live and multiply only on another living organism (some plant pathogens and endomycorrhizae)

- biotroph/obligate parasites


_________ can be a direct reason for contaminations

- insufficient sterilization


Problems with importation of mushrooms included _______ and _____

- poor shipping conditions
- long travel times


What is the reason for mushroom cultivation?

- provides an opportunity for farmers interested in addition enterprise or specialty crop


Mushroom production is not a "get rich quick" enterprise, it is _____ and _____ intensive

- labor and management


Advantages of cultivating mushrooms include

1. abundance of plant waste for the substrate
2. Can help protein insufficiency and starvation
3. Can increase job opportunities


Today _______ has the largest mushroom production in the country

- southeastern pennsylvania


Long before human cultured fungi there were _______. They have a 50 million year old mutualistic relationship with fungi.

- attine ants/ leaf cutter ants


Mushroom production takes a considerable amount of ______, ______, _____ and _______ to set up a production system

- knowledge
- research
- planning
- capital investment


Steps of mushroom production

1. growing medium (substrate)
2. pasteurizing or sterilizing the medium
3. seeding with spawn
4. maintaining the environment


Mushrooms can be used to produce ______ at a profit, while using materials that would otherwise be considered _____

- nutritious food
- waste


a pure culture spawn contains only living _____ of the desired mushroom species

- mycelium


________ started the american spawn company of st paul Minnesota and was a french mycologist that produced the first pure spawn

- Louis F Lambert


Egyptian hieroglyphics referenced mushrooms as the ___________

- mysterious night growing vegetable (decreed food for royalty)


Leading countries in mushroom cultivation are ______

- China
- US
- the Netherlands
- france


_______ has long been known as the birthplace of the mushroom industry and hosts the mushroom festival

- kennett square


Changing culinary trends have resulted in an increase in the ______ of mushrooms

- diversity


Recycling agricultural waste products can be used for __________

- mushroom cultivation
- examples include corn cobs, cotton shells, sugar can segments, sugar beets, methane and even industry waste


The mushroom treatment

- keep the mushrooms in a dark place and give lots of manure