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Flashcards in Chapter 6 - Automatic Sprinkler Systems Deck (134)
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1
Q

According to the USFA the presence of properly designed, installed, and maintained sprinkler systems reduces the chance of death from fire by _____-_______ to _____-_______ and property losses are cut in ______-_______ or more.

A

one-third / two-thirds / one-half

p 139

2
Q

The first sprinkler system was invented in ______ by Henry S. Parmalee, who was looking for a way to protect his large piano mill.

A

1874

3
Q

The first standard for the design, installation, testing, and inspection of automatic sprinkler systems was written by the NFPA in ______. That standard, NFPA _____ has been in continuous publication since that date.

A

1896 / 13 Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems

p 139

4
Q

There are currently two additional NFPA standards that regulate the installation of automatic sprinkler systems: ?

A

NFPA 13D / NFPA 13 R

p 139

5
Q

According to recent performance statistics published by the NFPA, when operated sprinklers were effective _____ percent of the time.

A

97

p 140

6
Q
  • Capable of maintaining human life
A

Tenable atmosphere

p 141

7
Q

Sprinkler are kept closed by _________ __________.

A

thermal elements

p 142

8
Q

Some systems such as ________ or _________ type sprinkler systems, operate when an electronic detector or manual control device is activated.

A

deluge or pre action

p 142

9
Q

Every automatic sprinkler system must have a water supply of adequate __________, ___________, and ___________.

A

volume, pressure and reliability

p 142

10
Q

Minimum water flow requirements for the system are determined by the __________ being protected, the _____________ classification, and the ______-__________ conditions.

A

hazard / occupancy / fuel-loading

p 142

11
Q

The water supply system must be able to deliver the required volume and pressure of water to the __________ or most _________ sprinkler in a structure while maintaining a minimum residual, or remaining, pressure in the system.

A

highest / remote

p 142

12
Q

Distribution piping:

  • _________ metal (known as black steel)
  • _________
  • ______________ steel
  • __________
A
  • Ferrous
  • Copper
  • Galvanized
  • Plastic

p 143

13
Q

__________ metal piping is the most common type in use.

A

Ferrous

p 143

14
Q

The wall thickness of pipe is normally referred to as the ______ ___________.

A

pipes schedule

p 143

15
Q

The pipes schedule directly influences ________ _______ characteristics.

A

water flow

p 143

16
Q

Sprinkler piping is typically Schedule _____, Schedule _____, or _________ _________ pipe.

A

10 / 40 / special listed

p 143

17
Q

_________ piping has been approved for sprinkler systems since the early 1960s.

A

Copper

p 143

18
Q

_________ pipe is the least expensive type of sprinkler system piping.

A

Plastic

p 143

19
Q

The piping is the lightest in weight and the easiest to install.

A

Plastic piping

p 143

20
Q

The main drawback of plastic pipe is that it may not be installed in areas where the _____________ _______________ exceeds specific limitations.

A

ambient temperature

p 144

21
Q
  • Piping that connects the sprinkler system to the main water supply.
A

Water supply main

p 144

22
Q
  • Vertical piping that extends upward from the water supply to feed the cross or feed mains.
A

System riser

p 145

23
Q
  • Pipe that rises vertically and supplies a single sprinkler
A

Spring

p 145

24
Q
  • Any vertical supply piping in the system
A

Riser

p 145

25
Q
  • Pipe that supplies water to each of the cross mains
A

Feed main

p 145

26
Q
  • Pipe that feeds the branch lines
A

Cross main

p 145

27
Q
  • Pipes that contain the individual sprinkler devices and include grid lines in gridded systems
A

Branch lines

p 145

28
Q

The ______ _________ valve is used to shut off the water supply to the system when it is necessary to replace sprinklers or to perform other maintenance.

A

main control

p 145

29
Q

To help insure that valves are not inadvertently left in a closed position, all valves that control water to sprinkler systems are of the ___________ ______.

A

indicating type

p 145

30
Q

Underground valves in water distribution systems are commonly ______________ ________.

A

Nonindicating valves

p 145

31
Q

There are three types of control valves: _________ valves, ______ valves, and ______ valves.

A

butterfly / gate / ball

p 145

32
Q

The operating mechanism of sprinkler system control valves may be either the ______ or __________ type.

A

gate or butterfly

p 146

33
Q

This valve consists of a close-tolerance gate that slides across a waterway ?

A

gate-valve

p 146

34
Q

In this valve a disc rotates 90 degrees inside the waterway ?

A

butterfly valve

p 146

35
Q

A ball valve may be used as a control valve as long as it cannot be closed in less than ____ seconds. Closing any valve in less than ____ seconds is always ill-advised because it may cause water hammer.

A

5 / 5

p 146

36
Q

Ball valves that are listed for use in a fire sprinkler system as a control valve have a _____________.

A

hand wheel

p 146

37
Q

In addition to control valves, sprinkler systems employ various _____________ valves, such as alarm valves, check valves, automatic drain valves, globe valves, and stop or cock valves.

A

operating

p 147

38
Q
  • Type of check valve installed in the riser of an automatic sprinkler system that transmits a water-flow alarm when the water flow in the system lifts the valve clapper.
A

Alarm check valve

p 147

39
Q

Most systems with alarm check valves provide for a _________ ___________ to help prevent false alarms caused by water surges.

A

retard chamber

p 147

40
Q

This small valve diverts water from the water supply into the alarm pipe and retard chamber, which allows for the testing of alarms without tripping the alarm check valve ?

A

test valve

p 147

41
Q

These valves are used to limit the flow of water to one direction. They are placed in water sources to prevent recirculation or back flow of water from the sprinkler system into the municipal water supply ?

A

Check valves

p 147

42
Q

These valves allow piping to drain when pressure is relieved in the pipe ?

A

Automatic drain valves ( also known as ball drip valves )

p 148

43
Q

These are small handwheel-type valves that are primarily used on drains and test valves ?

A

Globe valves

p 148

44
Q

These valves are also used for drains and alarm testing. Ball type valves are most commonly opened and closed with a quarter turn of the valve ?

A

Stop or cock valves

p 148

45
Q

The _________ is the portion of the sprinkler system that reacts to the heat of a fire and then delivers water to the fire area.

A

sprinkler

p 148

46
Q

A simple _________-sensitive device controls most automatic sprinklers. Common types of these devices are the ________ ______ and __________ ______.

A

thermal / fusible link / frangible bulb

p 148

47
Q

In its simplest form, the _________ _______ is a solder link with a low, precisely established melting point.

A

fusible link

p 148

48
Q

__________ ________ contain a liquid that expands when heated.

A

Frangible bulbs

p 148

49
Q

The most common type of FDC connection is a ___ inch pipe equipped with a __________ fitting on the outside of the building.

A

4 inch / Siamese

p 150

50
Q

Temperature rating:

Operating temperatures vary from _____F to _____F or higher.

A

135F to 600F

p 150

51
Q

Temperature rating

For ordinary room temperatures, a sprinkler with a temperature rating of _____F to _____F is most frequently used.

A

135 to 170

p 150

52
Q

Temperature rating:
Color-code
Sprinklers rated for temperatures from 250F to 300F are ______.

A

blue

p 150

53
Q

The activation time of the sprinkler depends on the ________ _______, _______, and _________ characteristics of the heat-sensitive element.

A

surface area, mass, and thermal

p 151

54
Q

To speed the operation of sprinklers, engineers have designed types of sprinklers known as ?

A

early suppression fast response sprinklers (ESFR)

p 151

55
Q

These faster operating sprinklers can be compared to ordinary sprinklers through the use of a ?

A

Response Time Index (RTI)

p 151

56
Q

ESFR sprinklers typically react ____ to ____ times faster than traditional sprinklers.

A

5 to 10 times

p 151

57
Q

The lower a sprinklers RTI, the _________ it responds.

A

faster

p 151

58
Q
  • Part of the sprinkler assembly that creates the discharge pattern of the water.
A

Deflector

p 151

59
Q

Defector component

Modern standard sprinklers produce a more uniform discharge pattern that is directed ____________.

A

downward

p 152

60
Q

Deflector types

  • ________ - Designed to deflect the spray of water downward in a hemispherical pattern.
  • _________ - Used where it is impractical or unsightly to use sprinklers in an upright position such as below a suspended ceiling.
  • _________ - Used in instances where it may be desirable or required to install sprinklers on the wall at the side of a room or space.
A
  • Upright
  • Pendant
  • Sidewall

p 152

61
Q

Deflector types

  • __________ - Hidden by a removable decorative cover that releases when exposed to a specific level of heat.
  • _______ - Mounted in a ceiling with the body of the sprinkler, including the threaded shank, above the plane of the ceiling.
A
  • Concealed
  • Flush

p 153

62
Q

Deflector types:

  • _________ - Installed in recessed housing within the ceiling of a compartment or space; all or part of the sprinkler other than the threaded shank is mounted in the housing.
  • _______ - Typically used in storage facilities and incorporates a protective disc that shields the heat-sensing element from water that is discharged from the sprinklers above.
A
  • Recessed
  • In-Rack

p 153

63
Q

Specialty sprinklers

  • _______ ______ - Designed to produce large drops of water to enable the spray to penetrate strong up drafts created by elevated fire conditions.
  • _____ ________ - Used in either dry or wet systems where the protected area may freeze.
A
  • Large drop
  • Dry pendant

p 153

64
Q

An example of where a dry pendant sprinkler would be used is ?

A

walk-in freezer in a store or storage facility

p 153

65
Q

Specialty sprinklers:

  • ____________ - These are fast-response sprinklers that have a special low-mass fusible link or bulb that makes the time of temperature actuation much less than that of a conventional sprinkler.
  • _______ _______ _________ - Discharges water in a specific pattern to protect a three-dimensional hazard such as an electric transformer or flammable liquid or gas tank.
A
  • Residential
  • Water spray nozzle

p 153

66
Q

Specialty sprinklers

  • _______ - Designed to protect sloped attic spaces.
  • _______ ______ - Turns water into a very fine mist, which depletes oxygen and blocks radiant heat.
A
  • Attic
  • Water mist

p 154

67
Q

Contains water under pressure in the piping at all times so that the opening of a sprinkler immediately discharges water onto a fire and activates an alarm ?

A

wet-pipe sprinkler system

p 154

68
Q

Wet pipe systems

Research by the NFPA indicates that ____ percent of fires are controlled with less than ____ sprinklers activated.

A

99 / 10

p 154

69
Q

Depending on the size of the systems and the occupancies in which they are built, wet-pipe systems fall under the requirements of NFPA ____, _____, or _____.

A

13, 13D or 13R

p 155

70
Q

Wet pipe systems

These systems are typically equipped with a _______ _______ indicator that initiates an alarm when water begins to flow in the system.

A

water flow

p 155

71
Q

Wet pipe systems

There is a time delay feature on water flow switches, this delay is typically _____ seconds but may be up to _____ seconds from activation depending on AHJ requirements.

A

30 / 90

p 155

72
Q

Wet pipe systems

A U-loop piping arrangement prevents the ___________ solution from leaking back into the rest of the system.

A

antifreeze

p 156

73
Q

A system in which air or nitrogen under pressure replaces water in the pipes?

A

dry pipe sprinkler system

p 156

74
Q

The dry pipe valve must be located in a heated portion of the structure, which must be maintained at a minimum of ____*F according to code requirements.

A

40

p 156

75
Q

The air necessary to service a dry system may be obtained from two sources:

  • _____ ____________ and ________ arrangement
  • ________ or _______ air system
A
  • air compressor and tank arrangement
  • plant or shop air system

p 157

76
Q

Air-water differential

The differential is generally a __:__ to __:__ ratio where, for example, __ psi of air is needed to hold back __ psi of water.

A

3:1 to 7:1 / 1 psi / 3 psi

p 158

77
Q

Dry pipe systems

The air pressure in the system must be maintained within the prescribed limits, which are typically no more than ____ psi above the pressure at which the dry pipe valve will trip.

A

20 psi

p 158

78
Q

Dry pipe systems

There are two types of quick opening devices: _____________ and ______________.

A

accelerators and exhausters

p 158

79
Q

Dry pipe systems

Quick opening devices are required on any dry-pipe valve that serves a piping system with a capacity of more than ______ gallons.

A

500

p 158

80
Q

Dry pipe systems

If the system is over 750 gallons water must be provided to the most remote sprinkler within ____ to ____ seconds of system activation, depending on the occupancy classification.

A

15 to 60

p 158

81
Q

A _________ system is designed to quickly supply a large volume of water to the protected area.

A

Deluge

p 158

82
Q

Deluge systems are normally used to protect extra-hazard occupancies such as ________ ________, _____________ shops, _________ towers, ____________ storage, or certain manufacturing facilities.

A

aircraft hangers / woodworking / cooling / ammunition

p 158

83
Q

A deluge system is similar to a dry pipe system in that ____ ________ is contained in the piping before the activation of the deluge valve.

A

no water

p 158

84
Q

Deluge systems differ from dry pipe systems in that all of the sprinklers are ______, with no ________ _______.

A

open / fusible links

p 158

85
Q

Deluge system

When the valve is tripped and water enters the system, the water will discharge through all the sprinklers _______________.

A

simultaneously

p 159

86
Q
  • Automatic valve used to control water to a deluge sprinkler system.
A

Deluge valve

p 159

87
Q

Deluge valves can be operated _____________, _____________, or ______________.

A

electrically, pneumatically, or hydraulically

p 159

88
Q

A major advantage of the electrically operated deluge valve is its ?

A

speed of operation

p 159

89
Q

Most modern deluge systems are activated ________________ and use similar components to a fire alarm system.

A

electronically

p 159

90
Q

Pneumatically operated deluge valves are designed for use in a pneumatic detection system, usually one that has ______-___-______ detectors.

A

rate of rise

p 160

91
Q

Air-water differential

The differential is generally a __:__ to __:__ ratio where, for example, __ psi of air is needed to hold back __ psi of water.

A

3:1 to 7:1 / 1 psi / 3 psi

p 158

92
Q

Dry pipe systems

The air pressure in the system must be maintained within the prescribed limits, which are typically no more than ____ psi above the pressure at which the dry pipe valve will trip.

A

20 psi

p 158

93
Q

Dry pipe systems

There are two types of quick opening devices: _____________ and ______________.

A

accelerators and exhausters

p 158

94
Q

Dry pipe systems

Quick opening devices are required on any dry-pipe valve that serves a piping system with a capacity of more than ______ gallons.

A

500

p 158

95
Q

Dry pipe systems

If the system is over 750 gallons water must be provided to the most remote sprinkler within ____ to ____ seconds of system activation, depending on the occupancy classification.

A

15 to 60

p 158

96
Q

A _________ system is designed to quickly supply a large volume of water to the protected area.

A

Deluge

p 158

97
Q

Deluge systems are normally used to protect extra-hazard occupancies such as ________ ________, _____________ shops, _________ towers, ____________ storage, or certain manufacturing facilities.

A

aircraft hangers / woodworking / cooling / ammunition

p 158

98
Q

A deluge system is similar to a dry pipe system in that ____ ________ is contained in the piping before the activation of the deluge valve.

A

no water

p 158

99
Q

Deluge systems differ from dry pipe systems in that all of the sprinklers are ______, with no ________ _______.

A

open / fusible links

p 158

100
Q

Deluge system

When the valve is tripped and water enters the system, the water will discharge through all the sprinklers _______________.

A

simultaneously

p 159

101
Q
  • Automatic valve used to control water to a deluge sprinkler system.
A

Deluge valve

p 159

102
Q

Deluge valves can be operated _____________, _____________, or ______________.

A

electrically, pneumatically, or hydraulically

p 159

103
Q

A major advantage of the electrically operated deluge valve is its ?

A

speed of operation

p 159

104
Q

Most modern deluge systems are activated ________________ and use similar components to a fire alarm system.

A

electronically

p 159

105
Q

Pneumatically operated deluge valves are designed for use in a pneumatic detection system, usually one that has ______-___-______ detectors.

A

rate of rise

p 160

106
Q

In a situation where the fire is discovered by an individual, the deluge valve can be __________ activated.

A

manually

p 160

107
Q

A ___________ system is used when it is especially important that the inadvertent release of water be minimized, even if the sprinkler pipes accidentally break.

A

preaction

p 160

108
Q

Preaction systems are frequently used to protect __________ rooms, ____________ storage areas, __________, or ______-storage warehouses.

A

computer / document / freezers / cold

p 160

109
Q

When the preaction system exceeds _____ sprinklers, regulations require that the piping be supervised. This is usually accomplished with _____ under low pressure.

A

20 / air

p 160

110
Q

Three categories of preaction sprinkler systems:

  • ______________ system - Admits water to sprinkler piping upon operation of detection devices or automatic sprinklers.
  • _________ __________ system - Admits water to the sprinkler piping upon operation of a detection device.
  • _________ __________ system - Admits water to sprinkler piping upon operation of both detection devices and automatic sprinklers or two separate detection devices or circuits.
A
  • Noninterlock
  • Single interlock
  • Double interlock

p 160

111
Q

A _____________ sprinkler system is an automatic sprinkler system that is specifically designed to enhance the survivability of individuals that are in the room of fire origin.

A

residential

p 161

112
Q

Residential systems

A minimum of a _____ minute supply of stored water is required for residential for systems designed in accordance with NFPA 13D.

A

10

p 161

113
Q

Residential systems

If structures are less than 2000 square feet in area and no more than one story in height, the minimum quantity is based on the flow rate of two sprinklers times ____ minutes of operation.

A

7

p 161

114
Q

Residential systems
Water supply:

In residential structures such as hotels and motels that are 4 stories or less, NFPA 13R requires a minimum of a _____ minute supply.

A

30 minute

p 161

115
Q

A major difference between residential sprinklers and standard sprinklers is their __________ or _______ of operation. Residential sprinklers operate more __________ than standard sprinklers.

A

sensitivity or speed / quickly

p 161

116
Q

Residential sprinklers are designed to discharge water ________ on the walls of a room to prevent fire from traveling above the spray, which might occur with burning _______ or in ___________ conditions.

A

higher / drapes / pre flashover

p 161

117
Q

Residential system changes:

  • Modification of sprinkler design and the development of _____-__________ residential sprinklers.
  • Minimum flow requirements of ____ gpm for an individual sprinkler for residential protection.
  • ________ that are simpler and better designed for residential applications.
A
  • fast-response
  • 18
  • alarms

p 161

118
Q

Residential systems:

By redesigning the ________ _____, even at 165*F, the sprinkler can be made to operate before conditions in the room become so untenable that occupants cannot survive.

A

fusible link

p 161

119
Q

Residential systems:

Using ______ __________ to control both the sprinklers and the water service for the residence eliminates the possibility of the supply valve being turned off without also shutting off the household water supply.

A

one valve

p 162

120
Q

Storage facility systems:
Commodity classification-

  • _______ ____ - Generally noncombustible and stored on wood pallets in ordinary packaging. These commodities can be packaged in corrugated cardboard or stretch-wrapped as a unit load.
A
  • Class I

p 162

121
Q

Storage facility systems:
Commodity classification-

  • _______ ____ - Noncombustible commodities but packaged in wooden crates or multilayered cardboard cartons.
A
  • Class II

p 162

122
Q

Storage facility systems:
Commodity classification-

  • ________ _____ - Combustible materials such as wood, paper, or certain plastics, regardless of packaging.
A
  • Class III

p 162

123
Q

Storage facility systems:
Commodity classification-

  • _______ ____ - Class I, II, or III products that contain limited amounts of Group A plastics. Plastics present a special fire-control problem because they produce more heat per ______ of _________ than ordinary combustibles.
A
  • Class IV / unit of weight

p 163

124
Q

Types of plastics:

Fast burning plastics are in _______ ___. Examples are:

  • Acrylic
  • Polycarbonate
  • Polyethylene
  • Polystyrene
A

Group A

p 163

125
Q

Types of plastics:

Moderate burning plastics are _______ ____. Examples are:

  • Cellulose Acetate
  • Ethyl Cellulose
  • Nylon
  • Silicone Rubber
A

Group B

p 163

126
Q

Types of plastics:

Slowest burning plastics are _______ ____. Examples are:

  • Melamine
  • Phenolic
  • Polyvinyl Fluoride
  • Urea Formaldehyde
A

Group C

p 163

127
Q

Which NFPA standard provides the requirements for periodic testing, maintenance, and inspection of automatic sprinkler systems ?

A

NFPA 25 Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems

p 164

128
Q

When inspecting the sprinklers themselves, it should be noted that a clearance of at least ____ inches should be maintained under sprinklers.

A

18 inches

p 165

129
Q

Some sprinklers, such as large drop and ESFR sprinklers, require a minimum clearance of _____ inches.

A

36

p 165

130
Q

All systems, regardless of type or occupancy, should be visually inspected on a _________ basis.

A

monthly

p 165

131
Q

The detection system should be tested ____________ and the system itself should be trip-tested __________.

A

semiannually / annually

p 165

132
Q

Inspections of wet-pipe systems are primarily concentrated in four areas: ?

A

valves, sprinklers, piping, and water supply

p 166

133
Q

Dry pipe system inspections

  • The systems air pressure should be at ____ to ____ psi above the trip point and no air leaks are indicated by a rapid or steady air loss.
A

5 to 20

p 166

134
Q

The supervisory air pressure in the preaction system should be checked __________.

A

weekly

p 167