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Flashcards in Chapter 8 - Special Extinguishing Systems Deck (78)
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1
Q

Special extinguishing systems are used in locations where _______-based automatic sprinklers may not be the best or most reasonable solution to a fire problem.

A

water

p 187

2
Q

5 classifications of fire:

  • _______ ____ fire - Involves energized electrical equipment, which requires the use of nonconductive agent for protection of the operator.
A
  • Class C

p 188

3
Q

Automatic sprinkler systems are typically designed to ________ the fire, whereas special-agent fire extinguishing systems are normally intended to ____________ the fire.

A

control / extinguish

p 187

4
Q

5 classifications of fires:

  • _______ ___ fire - Involves cooking oils and fats in appreciable depth.
A
  • Class K

p 188

5
Q

5 Classifications of fires:

  • _______ ____ fire - Involves flammable or combustible liquids and gases, including greases and similar fuels, which can be extinguished by _________ exclusion, smothering, insulating, and inhibiting the chemical chain reaction.
A
  • Class B / oxygen

p 188

6
Q

5 classifications of fires:

  • _______ ___ fire - Involves combustible metals such as magnesium, potassium, sodium, titanium, and zirconium, which require the use of an agent that absorbs heat and does not react with the burning metal.
A
  • Class D

p 188

7
Q

This system is best suited for application in commercial cooking hoods, plenums, ducts, and associated cooking appliances ?

A

wet chemical fire extinguishing system

p 189

8
Q

5 classifications of fires:

  • _______ ____ fire - Involves ordinary combustibles such as wood, cloth, paper, rubber, and many plastics.
A
  • Class A

p 188

9
Q

_____ _________ extinguishing agents are typically composed of water and either potassium carbonate, potassium citrate, or potassium acetate.

A

Wet chemical

p 189

10
Q

_______ ___-rated agents work by forming a barrier over the product, thus smothering and cooling the fire.

A

Class K

p 188

11
Q

These fire can be extinguished by cooling, smothering, insulating, or inhibiting the chemical chain reaction ?

A

Class A fires

p 188

12
Q

The wet chemical system should provide a foam blanket that remains intact at least _____ minutes and not _________ the grease or oil when discharged.

A

20 / splatter

p 189

13
Q

If the ___________ power is eliminated, these fires become Class A or Class B and may be extinguished appropriately ?

A

electrical / Class C

p 188

14
Q

The wet chemical system is most effective when used on fires in ?

A

deep fat fryers

p 189

15
Q

Wet chemical systems

The nature of the chemical is such that it reacts with animal or vegetable oil and forms a soapy foam through a process called ______________.

A

saponification

p 189

16
Q

Wet chemical systems:

Storage tanks for both the _________ _____ and the _____________ _______ are located adjacent to the system.

A

expellant gas / extinguishing agent

p 190

17
Q

Wet chemical systems:

The number of _______ in the systems piping must be taken into account when calculating piping requirements.

A

bends

p 190

18
Q

Wet chemical systems:

___________ _______ in the systems are activated by heat and trigger a release that starts the flow of extinguishing agent.

A

Fusible links

p 190

19
Q

All dry chemical systems should meet the requirements set forth in NFPA ?

A

NFPA 17, Standard for Dry Chemical Extinguishing Systems

p 191

20
Q

Dry chemicals discharge a cloud of chemical that leaves a _________. This _________ creates cleanup problems after system operation.

A

residue / residue

p 192

21
Q

Fixed dry chemical systems:

  1. _______ __________ - This the most common type of fixed system. This system discharges agent onto a specific surface such as the cooking area in a restaurant kitchen. These systems are no longer code-compliant or listed for this use but may still be encountered.
  2. _______ ___________ - This type of system introduces a thick concentration of agent into a closed area, such as a spray paint booth.
A
  1. Local application
  2. Total flooding

p 192

22
Q

These systems are used wherever rapid fire extinguishment is required and where reignition of the burning material is unlikely ?

A

Dry chemical fire-extinguishing systems

p 191

23
Q

Wet chemical system inspections:

Model codes require most systems to be inspected on a _____________ basis by a competent and trained individual.

A

semiannual

p 190

24
Q

Two dry chemical extinguishing agents that are currently used:

  1. _________ _____________ - Also known as ordinary dry chemical, this agent is effective on Class B and Class C fires.
  2. ___________________ _____________ - Also known as multipurpose dry chemical; this agent is effective on Class A, Class B, and Class C fires.
A
  1. Sodium bicarbonate
  2. Monoammonium phosphate

p 192

25
Q

These systems are used in areas where wet or dry systems may be undesirable or unsuitable. These areas must have undergone a _______-_________ test prior to their use to ensure they are effective.

A

Clean-agent fire extinguishing systems / room integrity

p 192

26
Q
  • System that uses special extinguishing agents that leave little or no residue.
A

Clean-agent fire extinguishing system

p 192

27
Q
  • Alarm that sounds before a total flooding fire extinguishing system is about to discharge. This gives occupants the opportunity to leave the area.
A

Predischarge Warning Device

p 193

28
Q

Dry chemical systems:

Inspections should be conducted as required by NFPA ____. This standard has recommendations for _________ and ____________ inspection and testing.

A

17 / monthly / semiannually

p 192

29
Q

Clean agents are effective on Class ___, Class ____, and Class ____ fires and will not ___________ __________.

A

A, B, C / conduct electricity

p 193

30
Q

Clean agent systems:

For flooding applications to be effective, _______ ___________ is critical.

A

room integrity

p 193

31
Q

Clean agent systems:

In those areas where these systems are used, there are automatic door closers, door sweeps, and ?

A

pre discharge warning devices

p 193

32
Q

Clean agents:

_______________ agents are principally effective on Class B and Class C fires.

A

Halogenated

p 194

33
Q

Clean agents:

Two types of halons are still in use: Halon _______ and Halon ______.

A

1211 and 1301

p 194

34
Q

Halon 1211 is most commonly found in ____________ _____________.

A

portable extinguishers

p 194

35
Q

Halon 1301 is used in some portable fire extinguishers but is more commonly found in ______ _____-______________ systems for total flooding applications.

A

fixed-fire extinguishing

p 194

36
Q

Halon replacement agents:

  • __________ - Clean agent hydrochlorofluorocarbon that, when discharged, is a rapidly evaporating liquid. It leaves no residue and meets EPA minimum standards for discharge into the atmosphere.
A
  • Halotron

p 194

37
Q

Halon replacement agents:

  • ________ - Hydrofluorocarbon that is considered to be an acceptable alternative to Halon 1301 because it leaves no residue and is not harmful to humans or the environment.
A

FM-200

p 194

38
Q

Halon replacement agents:

  • _______ - Blend of three naturally occurring gases: nitrogen, argon, and carbon dioxide. It is stored in cylinders near the facility under protection.
A

Inergen

p 194

39
Q

Halon replacement agents:

  • ___________ - Halon replacement that is stored in a liquid state but converts to a gas when discharged through a nozzle. Suitable for sensitive areas such as computer rooms and museums.
A

Novec 1230

p 194

40
Q

Halon replacement agents:

  • _______ - Agent that is aerosolized and extinguishes a fire by interrupting the chemical chain reaction. The agent is commonly used to protect sensitive electrical equipment and is also used in military combat vehicles.
A

Stat-X

p 194

41
Q

Inspection and testing procedures for clean-agent fire extinguishing systems can be found in NFPA ______.

A

NFPA 2001, Standard on Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems

p 195

42
Q

_________ ___________ is a type of clean agent that has been proven effective for extinguishing most combustible materials fires with the exception of some active metals, metal hydrides, and other materials that contain available oxygen.

A

Carbon dioxide

p 195

43
Q

As delivered CO2 is extremely cold, approximately ______*F, and can freeze exposed skin.

A

-110

p 195

44
Q

All carbon dioxide systems must adhere to the requirements as described in NFPA _____.

A

NFPA 12, Standard on Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems

p 195

45
Q

CO2 systems have been used to extinguish fires involving the following materials or equipment:

  • Flammable and combustible __________
  • ___________ equipment and ____________ equipment
  • Flammable ________
  • Other combustibles including ___________ materials
A
  • liquids
  • electrical / energized
  • gases
  • cellulose

p 195

46
Q

Carbon dioxide systems are stored at either ______ or _____ pressure. System pressure can be determined by reading the __________ ________ on the system.

A

high or low / pressure gauges

p 196

47
Q

This system sprays water onto a fire in a fine mist that absorbs larger quantities of heat than an automatic sprinkler system. It also prevents and mitigates excessive water damage in occupancies where they are used ?

A

Water-mist fire suppression systems

p 197

48
Q

Which NFPA standard provides the requirements of installation of water mist fire suppression systems ?

A

NFPA 750, Standard on Water Mist Fire Protection Systems

p 197

49
Q

The development of water mist systems is relatively recent, and has been driven by the need for a replacement for ________ and other _________-depleting systems. In addition there has been a need to provide sprinkler protection on passenger _______ _______.

A

halon / oxygen / cruise ships

p 197

50
Q

Water mist systems are divided into low _____ psi or less, intermediate _____ to _____ psi, or high _____ psi or greater pressure systems.

A

175 / 175 to 500 / 500

p 198

51
Q

Water mist systems may present an ______ hazard during operation due to the high operating pressure of the system. These high-pressure systems may also present a _______ hazard during discharge.

A

eye / noise

p 198

52
Q

Foam extinguishes a fire by one or more methods including the following:

  • _____________ - Prevents air and flammable vapors from combining.
  • ____________ - Intervenes between the fuel and the fire.
  • __________ - Lowers the temperature of the fuel and adjacent surfaces.
  • ____________ - Prevents the release of flammable vapors
A
  • Smothering
  • Separating
  • Cooling
  • Suppression

p 198

53
Q

Standard and requirements for foam system design, placement, and other technical information can be found in which four NFPA standards ?

A

NFPA 11, 16, 30 and 409

p 198

54
Q

Foam generation:

Most fire-extinguishing foam concentrations in use today are of the _____________ type, which means they must be ____________ with water and mixed with air before they can be used.

A

mechanical / proportioned

p 199

55
Q
  • Raw foam liquid before the introduction of water and air. Usually shipped in 5-gallon buckets or 55 gallon drums.
A

Foam concentrate

p 199

56
Q
  • Device that introduces the correct amount of foam concentrate into the water stream to make the foam solution.
A

Foam proportioner

p 199

57
Q
  • Homogenous mixture of foam concentrate and water before the introduction of air.
A

Foam solution

p 199

58
Q
  • Completed product once air is introduced into the foam solution.
A

Foam (also known as finished foam)

p 199

59
Q

Four elements are necessary to produce high quality fire fighting foam: ?

A

foam concentrate, water, air, and mechanical agitation

p 200

60
Q
  • Introduction of air into a foam solution to create bubbles that result in finished foam.
A

Aeration

p 200

61
Q

An _________ is a type of foam proportioner that injects foam concentrate directly into the water flowing through a hose or pipe.

A

eductor

p 200

62
Q
  • Completed installation of piping, foam concentrate, storage, water supply, pumps and delivery systems used to protect a specific hazard such as a petroleum storage facility.
A

Fixed-foam fire extinguishing system

p 201

63
Q

Foam systems:

This system requires foam to be supplied from a mobile fire apparatus ?

A

Semifixed type A system

p 201

64
Q

Foam systems:

This system provides a foam solution source that is piped throughout a facility much like a water distribution system ?

A

Semi fixed type B system

p 201

65
Q
  • Foam system that is designed to provide fire extinguishing capabilities to an area but is not automatic in operation and depends on human intervention to place it into operation.
A

Semifixed system

p 201

66
Q

Foam systems:

This system is used when total flooding applications are required such as in aircraft hangers ?

A

High expansion foam systems

p 202

67
Q

Foam systems:

This system is similar to a deluge sprinkler system but has foam capabilities. These systems are used where there is a limited foam conch supply but an unlimited supply of water ?

A

Foam/water systems

p 202

68
Q

Foam/water systems

This system produces a ______ foam solution that eventually expands ______ to _______ times when it is discharged from the sprinkler.

A

lean / six to eight

p 202

69
Q

What three concentrates can be used in foam/water systems ?

A

Protein, fluoroprotein, and aqueous film forming foam (AFFF)

p 203

70
Q

Foam nozzles:

The use of _____________ nozzles is limited to Class A, CAFS applications. In these applications the ___________ nozzle provides an effective fire stream that has maximum reach capabilities.

A

smoothbore / smoothbore

p 203

71
Q

Tests indicate that the reach of the CAFS fire stream can be more than ________ the reach of a low-energy fire steam.

A

twice

p 203

72
Q

When using a smoothbore nozzle with a CAFS, disregard the standard rule of thumb that the discharge orifice of the nozzle no greater than _____-______ the diameter of the hose. Tests show that a _____ inch hoseline may be equipped with a nozzle tip up to ____ inch in diameter and still provide an effective fire stream.

A

one-half / 1 1/2 / 1 1/4

p 204

73
Q

The most effective appliance for generating low expansion foam is the _____-___________ foam nozzle.

A

air-aspirating

p 204

74
Q

Foam nozzles

This nozzle operates with an eductor that is built into the nozzle rather that into the hoseline ?

A

self-educting foam nozzle

p 204

75
Q

Foam nozzles:

This nozzle is used with foam solution to produce a low expansion, short lasting foam ?

A

Standard fixed flow fog nozzle

p 205

76
Q

Also known as forcing foam makers, these are used to deliver foam under pressure. These foam makers are most commonly used in subsurface injection systems that protect cone-roof hydrocarbon storage tanks ?

A

High back pressure foam aspirator

p 206

77
Q

These produce high air content, semistable foam ?

A

High expansion foam generator

p 206

78
Q

There are two basic types of high expansion foam generators: ?

A

water aspirating type nozzle and mechanical blower

p 206