Chapter 1 - Overview of Fire Detection and Suppression Systems Flashcards Preview

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1
Q
  • To cause to become less harsh or hostile; to make less severe, intense or painful; to alleviate.
A

Mitigate

p 7

2
Q

Fire prevention is the elimination of all hostile fires through ____________, ____________, and _____________.

A

education, engineering, and enforcement

p 7

3
Q

Fire prevention also involves ______________ modification that prevents or mitigates the threat from hostile fires.

A

behavior

p 7

4
Q

Fire protection systems can be divided into two broad categories: ?

A

fire detection and fire suppression

p 8

5
Q
  • System of detection devices, wiring, and supervisory equipment used for detecting fire or products of combustion and the signaling that these elements are present.
A

Fire Detection System

p 8

6
Q
  • System designed to act directly upon the hazard to mitigate or eliminate it, not simply to detect its presence and/or initiate an alarm.
A

Fire Suppression System

p 8

7
Q

The ________ ____________ of a fire and the signaling of an appropriate alarm remains the most significant factor in preventing large losses due to fire.

A

early detection

p 8

8
Q

Fire detection can be either _________ or _________.

A

passive or active

p 8

9
Q

__________ fire protection can be a part of building construction such as a concrete firewall or sprayed on structural fire protection.

A

Passive

p 8

10
Q

This type of fire protection system requires some type of outside intervention or mechanical support such as electricity or a water supply ?

A

Active fire detection and suppression systems

p 8

11
Q

The first fire alarm system was installed around ______. This was a municipal alarm system that used the ____________ to notify FDs of a fire.

A

1851 / telegraph

p 9

12
Q

The first commercially successful automatic fire sprinkler was patented in ______.

A

1872

p 9

13
Q

In _______, George Andrew Darby, an electrical engineer, patented the first heat indicator, which sounded a fire alarm when activated.

A

1902

p 9

14
Q

This early device paved the way for today’s battery-powered smoke alarms, which were introduced in _______ by Kenneth House and Randolph Smith.

A

1969

p 9

15
Q

In 1947, President Harry S. Truman commissioned ?

A

The President’s Conference on Fire Prevention

p 11

16
Q

The current concept of the Three E’s of Prevention - ___________, ____________, and ____________ - came as a result of The Presidents Conference.

A

education, engineering, and enforcement

p 11

17
Q

President Nixon convened what commission in the 1970s ?

A

The National Commission on Fire Prevention and Control

p 12

18
Q

The National Commission on Fire Prevention and Control produced the famous report entitled ____________ ___________.

A

America Burning

p 12

19
Q

America Burning resulted in the passage of the ?

A

Federal Fire Prevention and Control Act of 1974

p 12

20
Q

Overview of fire protection systems:

  • Five basic categories:
    1. Automatic fire ____________ and ________ systems
    2. Automatic fire ____________ systems
    3. Manual fire ________ systems
    4. Manual fire ______________ systems
    5. ________ control / _________ systems
A
  1. detection and alarm
  2. suppression
  3. alarm
  4. suppression
  5. Smoke / exhaust

p 12-13

21
Q
  • These systems are activated by smoke, high temperatures, or radiant heat and alert the occupants in the building and/or the FD to the fire. These systems do not slow the growth of the fire or reduce the amount of smoke produced.
A

Automatic fire detection and alarm systems

p 12

22
Q
  • These systems actually work to suppress the fire hazard by applying a fire-suppressing medium to the fire. There is no need for human intervention for their effectiveness. This reduces the hazard to the occupants and to the building and its contents.
A

Automatic fire suppression systems

p 12

23
Q
  • These systems require activation by individuals upon discovery of a fire.
A

Manual fire alarm systems

p 12

24
Q
  • This category includes standpipes (both vertical and horizontal), fire hoses, and fire extinguishers. These mechanisms require an individual to operate them in order to perform their function.
A

Manual fire suppression systems

p 13

25
Q
  • These systems mechanically remove smoke and other products of combustion from the structure.
A

Smoke control / exhaust systems

p 13

26
Q

___________ and _______ establish the minimum level of safety that should be present in a structure.

A

Standards and codes

p 13

27
Q

A ___________ is a set of principles, protocols, or procedures that is developed by committees through a consensus process. ____________ describe how to do something or provide a minimum set of principals that should be followed.

A

standard / standards

p 13

28
Q

A collection of rules and regulations enacted by a legislative body to become law in a particular jurisdiction ?

A

Code

p 14

29
Q

The main difference between a standard and a code is the level of ______________ that they provide.

A

enforcement

p 14

30
Q

_________ provide a model or desired level of performance, and _________ make them enforceable.

A

Standards / codes

p 14

31
Q

In order to be enforceable by law, standards and codes must be adopted by the ?

A

AHJ

p 14

32
Q

Building and fire codes can be adopted in two ways. The first is by ______________, where the entire code is copied into a regulation. The other method is by ___________, where the regulation states that the referenced code is legally enforceable as part of the fire and life safety regulations.

A

transcription / reference

p 14

33
Q

Many standards are ___________ __________, which mean that a group of experts has developed and agreed upon the standard before it is adopted.

A

consensus standards

p 14

34
Q
  • Method by which an AHJ adopts a code in whole to become a new regulation.
A

Transcription

p 14

35
Q
  • Method by which an AHJ refers to a code in a regulation and states that the code is legally enforceable.
A

Reference

p 14

36
Q
  • Rules, principles, or measures that are established through agreement of members of the standard-setting organization.
A

Consensus Standard

p 14

37
Q

The _______ publishes the majority of the consensus standards used in the US and Canada.

A

NFPA

p 15

38
Q

Since the _______, the NFPA has published a variety of standards and other documents dealing with fire prevention and building safety.

A

1880s

p 15

39
Q

The ________________ ______ __________ is a membership association dedicated to building safety and fire prevention.

A

International Code Council

p 15

40
Q

Most US cities, counties and states that adopt codes choose the international codes developed by the ?

A

ICC

p 15

41
Q

According to estimates by the NFPA and USFA, U.S. home usage of smoke alarms rose from less than _____ percent in 1975 to at least _____ percent in 2000. At the same time, the number of home fire deaths was ?

A

10 / 95 / cut nearly in half

p 16

42
Q

The NFPA states that a properly installed and maintained automatic sprinkler system will reduce the average property loss from fire by ?

A

one-half to two thirds

p 16

43
Q

According to the USFA, property losses are _____ percent less in buildings that are protected with fire sprinklers compared to those without sprinklers.

A

85

p 16