Chapter 6 exam 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 exam 2 Deck (25):
1

Deviance

Any attitude, behavior, or condition that violates cultural norms or societal laws and results in disapproval, hostility or sanction if it becomes known

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Pluralistic societies

Societies made up of many diverse groups with different norms and values

3

Phrenology

A theory that the skull shapes of deviant individuals differ from those of nondeviants

4

Atavism

throwbacks to primative early humans

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Structural strain

Gap exists between society's culturally defined goals and the means society makes available to achieve those goals

6

What was Merton's theory

structural strain

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Strain theory

lack of similarity between the cultural goals for success and the means available to achieve those goals, rates of deviance will be high

8

Opportunity theory

people differ not only in their motivations to engage in deviant acts but in their opportunities to do so

9

Control theory

cause of deviance lies in arena of social control and specifically the life experiences and relationships that people form

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Social bonds

individuals connections to others

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Subcultural theories

explain deviance in terms of the conflicting interests of more and less powerful segments of a population

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class-dominant theory

what is labeled defiant or criminal and who gets punished is determined by interests of the dominant class in a particular culture of society

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Structural contradiction theory

conflicts generated by fundamental contradictions in the structure of society produce laws defining certain acts as deviant or criminal

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Stigmatization

the branding of behavior as highly disgraceful

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Labeling theory

deviance is a product of the labels people attach to certain types of behavior

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Primary deviance

first step in the labeling of deviance, it occurs at the moment an activity is labeled deviant

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Secondary deviance

Second step, it occurs when a person labeled deviant accepts the label as part of his or her identity and as a result begins to act in conformity with the label

18

Differential Association theory

deviant and criminal behavior results from regular exposure to attitudes favorable to acting in ways that are deviant or criminal

19

White-Collar crimes

crime committed by people of high social status in connection with their work

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organized crime

crime committed by criminal groups that provide illegal goods and services

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State crimes

criminal or other harmful acts committed by state officials in the pursuit of their jobs as representation of the government

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social control

attempts by certain people or groups in society to control the behaviors of other individuals and groups in order to increase the likelihood that they will conform to established norms or laws

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social power

the ability to exercise social control

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informal social control

unofficial mechanism through which deviance and deviant behaviors are discouraged in society; most often occurs among ordinary people during the course of their interactions

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formal social control

official attempts to discourage certain behaviors and visibly punish others; most often exercised by the state