Flashcards in Chapter 6: How Did Rapid Change During the Meiji Period Affect Japan’s Worldview? Deck (46):
How did Japan Decide to Implement Change During the Meiji Period?
- Leaders borrowed + adopted parts of Western ideologies
- implemented aspects of democracy
- believed they needed education to help modernize
- embraced tech
Who was fukuzawa Yukichi?
- author, educator, + business entrepreneur
- Member of Iwakura mission + strong advocate for american style democracy
- born in Osaka in 1835 to low ranking Samurai Family
- Studied and taught Dutch
- owner of influential newspaper and fought for women
What was Fukuzawa Yukichi beliefs?
- People must develop a sense of personal value and strength
- education and study will create opportunities for personal success
- Governments should earn, in return government respect the will + needs of the people
- Japan stand up to west with an understanding of its worldview
How did modernizing the japanese political system reflect a new worldview?
- started to prepare for new government
- imperial control moved from Kyoto to Tokyo
- Tokyo more centralized for government
- Emperor moved to Shogun castle once the Bakufu lost power
What did the oligarchy decide to modernize Japan?
- must unify Japan's territories
- Look for model of government that could be adapted to Japanese ways
- change social order so all will have same obligations and loyalty to their state
- create constitution so that most important values +beliefs of Japan guide them in future
Unifying the Country.
- Many Samurai fought to dethrone the Shogun
- domains and institutions placed under a set of unified laws and regulations
- petition called, "Return of the Registers"
- All domains were abolished and replaced with a prefecture system
What did the leaders use as a symbol to help establish a nationalistic feeling?
- Daimyo gave up their rights and not guaranteed any rights
- only person with rights was the Emperor
Searching for a new model of Government:
- more Liberal supported French + American human rights
- More conservative supported more German ways
- oligarchy decided to look for centralized not democracy
- adapted a German government with strong cabinet and limited powers of parliament
- new government was called Dajokan after an ancient Japanese imperial institution
Political Change Affects the Social Systems:
- Eliminated the hierarchical social order of Japanese society
- Feudal class system was abolished
- all Japan lived under same obligation: to be loyal to emperor + state
Why did Japan's leaders want to develop a constitution?
- most strong European countries had constitutions
- west countries would see Japan stronger if it had a constitution
- constitution would unify Japan
Creating a Constitution:
- Many not satisfied with control of strong centralized government
- Samurai not called Shizoku
- People wanted more participation
- 3 political parties supported by different newspapers were formed
- political debates and violent revolts happened
- new law allowing government to censor newspapers happened
- in response people wanted a representative government
What did the Emperor announce with the new constitution?
- Emperor is sacred and above all law
- Government are responsible to the Emperor
- citizens granted freedom of speech, religion, and association, but rights can be taken away
What does the Emperor have the power to do?
- command military forces + control foreign policy
- appoint cabinet members, judges + privy council members
- convene and dissolve the Imperial Diet (parliament) at will
Describe the changes to the Imperial Diet (Parliament)
- divided into 2 houses of equal power
- Upper house called house of peers members selected for life by Emperor
- Lower house consists of 300 members, elected by citizens for 4 years
How did the unequal treaties affect Japan's economic system?
- Japan restricted by unequal treaties
- not allowed to lower taxes on domestic goods
- not allowed to raise taxes on foreign goods
- the unfair treaties made it hard for domestic trades to surrvive
The industries of Japan:
- most new ones such as monitions, gunpowder, were for the military
- other ones such as silk, textile, glass, and chemical plants
- most industries were government owned/funded
- within 10 years most of these factories, except the military ones, were handed over to private business
The private business of Japan:
- reduced economic competition since large parton of the country's major industries came under control of small private business
- ^ worried some Japanese economists
- the men owning these companies were called Zaibatsu
- ^ closely tied to government + strengthened support for Meiji state
- 1 famous companies run by Mitsubishi Family, today still is 1 of leading exporters
Who was Matsukata Masayoshi?
- Minister of Finance in 1881
What did Matsukata Masayoshi believe in?
- Japan needs to renegotiate the unequal treaties + adopt economic policies that will protect Japan
- government will no longer actively manage industries. Instead, develop business + financial conditions/bank
- imposing new taxes and lowering value of printed money
What was the effect of Matsukata Masayoshi new policies?
- many small farmers lost their land and several small businesses went bankrupt.
- by the end of the Meiji Era, Japan’s national income had doubled.
- Japan was quickly developing into a capitalist society
What is a Capitalist Society?
- Individuals or the government are engaged in business.
- focus is on entrepreneurs who establish and
- goal is to make a profit by producing or obtaining goods at one price and then selling them for more money.
- people work for wages not goods
What changes did Japan made using the developed countries of the west as guides?
- new railroads built to join 4 major islands
- deep water harbours were created at Yokohama and Kobe.
- telegraph + telephone systems were built
- new tech + industries were imported as well as, 100's of foreigners for teachers
- Ministry of Banking was set up to provide subsidies to new businesses
Why did Japan want a strong military?
- A strong centralized army of obedient and disciplined soldiers would strengthen the government. So they can bring change
- Without military strength, Japan will always be considered a minor nation
- Japan wanted to become a colonial power
- The leaders needed a strong military to ensure they could meet their political goals.
- To defend
- show the nation's power
Who did Japan used as models for new military?
British navy and German army
What was the Military like?
- Japan forced Korea to open its ports to trade
- army based off Germany made new Bushido Moral Code
- Japan attempted to take Korea from China and force China into unequal treaties in their favour.
How did the lives of the Daimyo change?
- The court nobility and the daimyo were merged into a single aristocratic class.
- no longer could get money from their domains so, were given pensions + government took over any debts they had on the domains
- invited to Tokyo were national banks located so, they could start new businesses
How did the lives of the Samurai change?
- Allowances reduced eventually eliminated
- military conscription symbolised the end of their privileges + and their importance
- allowed to turn into farmers, tradespeople, + business owners
How did the lives of the Commoners change?
- Feudal system destroyed, low class go rank up
- intermarriage ban between them and the Samurai was lifted
- were allowed to have surnames
- Christians allowed to practice their religion
- Lowest classes were raised to status of commoner
How did the lives of the Farmers change?
- given ownership of lands + allowed to grow whatever but, had to pay a 3% the on the land
- When didn't have money, they sold to richer farmers + turned tenant farmers
- were forced to work with a bureaucracy that was impersonal + inflexible
What did the 3% tax on the farmers cause?
- More equitable tax but for some taxes rose and causes hardships
- series of violent protests stopped by newly formed army
How did the education change?
- technical schools were set up
- tuition for primary schools was paid by parents but, eventually became free
- teachers taught so no variation in how they taught class everyone learned at same time/pace
- The government curriculum promoted strong, common moral values, a strong national identity, and loyalty to the emperor.
How was the Universities changed?
- Tuition free for those who accepted into the government-run universities
- graduates ^ were automatically qualified for jobs with government
What is Canada's education like?
- compulsory and free for children between 6 and 16 years of age.
- responsibility of each 10 provinces + 3 territories
- by law, Francophone citizens outside Québec are guaranteed education in French
- federal government is responsible for educating First Nations students in reserve schools.
How did Japan's religion change?
- oligarchy wanted to make Shintoism the national religion and part of the school curriculum
- hoped the people would discard Buddhism and Confucianism
- There was confusion, because it virtues were still being taught in the schools, the military, and through bushido.
- Eventually the government had to allow Buddhism as a religion.
How did Japan's attitudes change?
- new periodicals + newspapers wrote ideals of individualism
- people felt bitter towards the west
- Japan was unable to renegotiate the unequal treaties
How did Japan's citizenship + participation develop?
- many became lobbyists + wrote letters of protest to government
- people felt/wanted to be more involved
and Europeans became entranced with Japanese art and culture.
- Japonisme influenced Western painting, sculpture, graphic arts,
architecture, and ceramics.
- Many famous European artists were
influenced by Japanese art
- The upper and middle
classes in Europe soon demanded these goods for their homes and
- Westerns also inspired the Japanese
How did the government change from Edo to Meiji?
Edo: Japanese politics was based on a feudal system.
Meiji: Feudalism was abolished
How did the Land Ownership change from Edo to Meiji?
Edo: divided into domains that were the property of the daimyo.
Meiji: Domains were abolished
How did the Taxes change from Edo to Meiji?
Edo: daimyo were required to pay taxes to the shogun.
Meiji: collected directly by the central government.
How did the Military change from Edo to Meiji?
Edo: shogun had the largest army
Meiji: military service compulsory.
How did the Foreign relations change from Edo to Meiji?
Edo: priorities of the shogun were peace and order.
Meiji: priority of the Meiji leaders was to build up Japan’s strength
How did the education change from Edo to Meiji?
Edo: no government-run schools. Schools only for Samurai + commoners
Meiji: A Ministry of Education was established
How did the Class structure change from Edo to Meiji?
Edo: The feudal system dictated strict class structure and social roles.
Meiji: The feudal system was abolished
How did the culture change from Edo to Meiji?
Edo: Society was very traditional
Meiji: Society adopted many ways of the West but maintained most cultural traditions as well.