Chapter 6: How Did Rapid Change During the Meiji Period Affect Japan’s Worldview? Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6: How Did Rapid Change During the Meiji Period Affect Japan’s Worldview? Deck (46):
1

How did Japan Decide to Implement Change During the Meiji Period?

- Leaders borrowed + adopted parts of Western ideologies
- implemented aspects of democracy
- believed they needed education to help modernize
- embraced tech

2

Who was fukuzawa Yukichi?

- author, educator, + business entrepreneur
- Member of Iwakura mission + strong advocate for american style democracy
- born in Osaka in 1835 to low ranking Samurai Family
- Studied and taught Dutch
- owner of influential newspaper and fought for women

3

What was Fukuzawa Yukichi beliefs?

- People must develop a sense of personal value and strength
- education and study will create opportunities for personal success
- Governments should earn, in return government respect the will + needs of the people
- Japan stand up to west with an understanding of its worldview

4

How did modernizing the japanese political system reflect a new worldview?

- started to prepare for new government
- imperial control moved from Kyoto to Tokyo
- Tokyo more centralized for government
- Emperor moved to Shogun castle once the Bakufu lost power

5

What did the oligarchy decide to modernize Japan?

- must unify Japan's territories
- Look for model of government that could be adapted to Japanese ways
- change social order so all will have same obligations and loyalty to their state
- create constitution so that most important values +beliefs of Japan guide them in future

6

Unifying the Country.

- Many Samurai fought to dethrone the Shogun
- domains and institutions placed under a set of unified laws and regulations
- petition called, "Return of the Registers"
- All domains were abolished and replaced with a prefecture system

7

What did the leaders use as a symbol to help establish a nationalistic feeling?

- Emperor
- Daimyo gave up their rights and not guaranteed any rights
- only person with rights was the Emperor

8

Searching for a new model of Government:

- more Liberal supported French + American human rights
- More conservative supported more German ways
- oligarchy decided to look for centralized not democracy
- adapted a German government with strong cabinet and limited powers of parliament
- new government was called Dajokan after an ancient Japanese imperial institution

9

Political Change Affects the Social Systems:

- Eliminated the hierarchical social order of Japanese society
- Feudal class system was abolished
- all Japan lived under same obligation: to be loyal to emperor + state

10

Why did Japan's leaders want to develop a constitution?

- most strong European countries had constitutions
- west countries would see Japan stronger if it had a constitution
- constitution would unify Japan

11

Creating a Constitution:

- Many not satisfied with control of strong centralized government
- Samurai not called Shizoku
- People wanted more participation
- 3 political parties supported by different newspapers were formed
- political debates and violent revolts happened
- new law allowing government to censor newspapers happened
- in response people wanted a representative government

12

What did the Emperor announce with the new constitution?

- Emperor is sacred and above all law
- Government are responsible to the Emperor
- citizens granted freedom of speech, religion, and association, but rights can be taken away

13

What does the Emperor have the power to do?

- command military forces + control foreign policy
- appoint cabinet members, judges + privy council members
- convene and dissolve the Imperial Diet (parliament) at will

14

Describe the changes to the Imperial Diet (Parliament)

- divided into 2 houses of equal power
- Upper house called house of peers members selected for life by Emperor
- Lower house consists of 300 members, elected by citizens for 4 years

15

How did the unequal treaties affect Japan's economic system?

- Japan restricted by unequal treaties
- not allowed to lower taxes on domestic goods
- not allowed to raise taxes on foreign goods
- the unfair treaties made it hard for domestic trades to surrvive

16

The industries of Japan:

- most new ones such as monitions, gunpowder, were for the military
- other ones such as silk, textile, glass, and chemical plants
- most industries were government owned/funded
- within 10 years most of these factories, except the military ones, were handed over to private business

17

The private business of Japan:

- reduced economic competition since large parton of the country's major industries came under control of small private business
- ^ worried some Japanese economists
- the men owning these companies were called Zaibatsu
- ^ closely tied to government + strengthened support for Meiji state
- 1 famous companies run by Mitsubishi Family, today still is 1 of leading exporters

18

Who was Matsukata Masayoshi?

- Minister of Finance in 1881

19

What did Matsukata Masayoshi believe in?

- Japan needs to renegotiate the unequal treaties + adopt economic policies that will protect Japan
- government will no longer actively manage industries. Instead, develop business + financial conditions/bank
- imposing new taxes and lowering value of printed money

20

What was the effect of Matsukata Masayoshi new policies?

- many small farmers lost their land and several small businesses went bankrupt.
- by the end of the Meiji Era, Japan’s national income had doubled.
- Japan was quickly developing into a capitalist society

21

What is a Capitalist Society?

- Individuals or the government are engaged in business.
- focus is on entrepreneurs who establish and
operate companies.
- goal is to make a profit by producing or obtaining goods at one price and then selling them for more money.
- people work for wages not goods

22

What changes did Japan made using the developed countries of the west as guides?

- new railroads built to join 4 major islands
- deep water harbours were created at Yokohama and Kobe.
- telegraph + telephone systems were built
- new tech + industries were imported as well as, 100's of foreigners for teachers
- Ministry of Banking was set up to provide subsidies to new businesses

23

Why did Japan want a strong military?

- A strong centralized army of obedient and disciplined soldiers would strengthen the government. So they can bring change
- Without military strength, Japan will always be considered a minor nation
- Japan wanted to become a colonial power
- The leaders needed a strong military to ensure they could meet their political goals.
- To defend
- show the nation's power

24

Who did Japan used as models for new military?

British navy and German army

25

What was the Military like?

- Japan forced Korea to open its ports to trade
- army based off Germany made new Bushido Moral Code
- Japan attempted to take Korea from China and force China into unequal treaties in their favour.

26

How did the lives of the Daimyo change?

- The court nobility and the daimyo were merged into a single aristocratic class.
- no longer could get money from their domains so, were given pensions + government took over any debts they had on the domains
- invited to Tokyo were national banks located so, they could start new businesses

27

How did the lives of the Samurai change?

- Allowances reduced eventually eliminated
- military conscription symbolised the end of their privileges + and their importance
- allowed to turn into farmers, tradespeople, + business owners

28

How did the lives of the Commoners change?

- Feudal system destroyed, low class go rank up
- intermarriage ban between them and the Samurai was lifted
- were allowed to have surnames
- Christians allowed to practice their religion
- Lowest classes were raised to status of commoner

29

How did the lives of the Farmers change?

- given ownership of lands + allowed to grow whatever but, had to pay a 3% the on the land
- When didn't have money, they sold to richer farmers + turned tenant farmers
- were forced to work with a bureaucracy that was impersonal + inflexible

30

What did the 3% tax on the farmers cause?

- More equitable tax but for some taxes rose and causes hardships
- series of violent protests stopped by newly formed army

31

How did the education change?

- technical schools were set up
- tuition for primary schools was paid by parents but, eventually became free
- teachers taught so no variation in how they taught class everyone learned at same time/pace
- The government curriculum promoted strong, common moral values, a strong national identity, and loyalty to the emperor.

32

How was the Universities changed?

- Tuition free for those who accepted into the government-run universities
- graduates ^ were automatically qualified for jobs with government

33

What is Canada's education like?

- compulsory and free for children between 6 and 16 years of age.
- responsibility of each 10 provinces + 3 territories
- by law, Francophone citizens outside Québec are guaranteed education in French
- federal government is responsible for educating First Nations students in reserve schools.

34

How did Japan's religion change?

- oligarchy wanted to make Shintoism the national religion and part of the school curriculum
- hoped the people would discard Buddhism and Confucianism
- There was confusion, because it virtues were still being taught in the schools, the military, and through bushido.
- Eventually the government had to allow Buddhism as a religion.

35

How did Japan's attitudes change?

- new periodicals + newspapers wrote ideals of individualism
- people felt bitter towards the west
- Japan was unable to renegotiate the unequal treaties

36

How did Japan's citizenship + participation develop?

- many became lobbyists + wrote letters of protest to government
- people felt/wanted to be more involved

37

Japonisme:

- Americans
and Europeans became entranced with Japanese art and culture.
- Japonisme influenced Western painting, sculpture, graphic arts,
architecture, and ceramics.
- Many famous European artists were
influenced by Japanese art
- The upper and middle
classes in Europe soon demanded these goods for their homes and
lives.
- Westerns also inspired the Japanese

38

How did the government change from Edo to Meiji?

Edo: Japanese politics was based on a feudal system.
Meiji: Feudalism was abolished

39

How did the Land Ownership change from Edo to Meiji?

Edo: divided into domains that were the property of the daimyo.
Meiji: Domains were abolished

40

How did the Taxes change from Edo to Meiji?

Edo: daimyo were required to pay taxes to the shogun.
Meiji: collected directly by the central government.

41

How did the Military change from Edo to Meiji?

Edo: shogun had the largest army
Meiji: military service compulsory.

42

How did the Foreign relations change from Edo to Meiji?

Edo: priorities of the shogun were peace and order.
Meiji: priority of the Meiji leaders was to build up Japan’s strength

43

How did the education change from Edo to Meiji?

Edo: no government-run schools. Schools only for Samurai + commoners
Meiji: A Ministry of Education was established

44

How did the Class structure change from Edo to Meiji?

Edo: The feudal system dictated strict class structure and social roles.
Meiji: The feudal system was abolished

45

How did the culture change from Edo to Meiji?

Edo: Society was very traditional
Meiji: Society adopted many ways of the West but maintained most cultural traditions as well.

46

Conclusion:

- Japan wanted to be seen equal
- Meiji Era ended with death of Emperor in 1912
- many key advisers ^ committed seppuku when they lost their lord