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Dialoguing Skills

1. being open tot he client's lived experience, especially at the beginning

2. exhibiting warmth, empath, and genuineness
3. listening and speaking in a way the benefits the client
4. ability to define "problems" from a wide perspective
5. ability to maintain a non-judgmental and accepting attitude.
6. ability to reflect on sociological dimensions of an apparently individual problem
7. ability to elicit require information and feelings
8. ability to relate to client's and one's own emotions
9. ability to develop an egalitarian relationship as apposed to an authoritarian relationship
10. ability to let silences between the words be a part of the dialogue


Building Consensus

Consensus building attempts to work out an agreement on what should be done to address a problem. It may be easily attained or there may be discrepancies between what accent says they want and their behaviour, or between separate messages given by a client. Confrontation may be used to challenge a client to examine discrepancies. It should be non-adversarial, respectful, and used only when a sage and trusting relationship exists.



this skill enables the social worker to dive into the presented problem and "read between the lines". By using this method, you may be able to "re-frame" the issue, going it you own unique angle. The worker's insights may help the client develop a deeper understanding of what is really going on, and no just what appears to be happening. It may provide alternative way of looking at the problem or a new frame of reference. Always check both verbal and non-verbal reposes of the client to your interpretation


Giving Information

without overwhelming people with too much information at one time, the social worker often shares information about resources in the community (i.e. women's shelters) or information that shows that the client is not alone in experiencing the problem. Be sure the client realizes that they can refuse the information , and provide pamphlets or brochures where possible.



This skills is used in attempts to capture or pull together the most important aspects of the problem or situation. It provides focus of the next interview and can assist in planning. Both the feelings and con ten of the client's message should be used. It is also useful when the social worker believes that it is time to move on to another topic.


Working with the Family

Involves working with a couple, or a child and a parent, or an entire family to help them address specific situation or achieve purposeful change. Social work models tend to emphasize empowering family members and developing more secure relationships between family members. When working with vulnerable families, such s families in transition (immigrants) and families living in poverty, the emphasis is on stabilizing connections with social institutions such as schools, churches, child welfare agencies, and hospitals.


Working with the Individual

This is called casework. It is either in private or public agencies (private is increasing but still rare). The aims is at helping people resolve their problems or situations on a one-to-one basis (i.e. helping the unemployed get a job)



The steps are guid posts that involve combining and rehoming actions into new ways of looking at things



is a basic social worker communication skill. With this the social worker re-states what the client has said in his or her own words. Workers useit to confirm that the meaning the worker has attached to a client's message is indeed the meaning intended by the client. It also provides feedback to the client. Beginning social workers need to be aware that overuse of it can give the client the client the impression of be mimicked.



This skill is used to determine if the worker and client are on the same "wavelength". You may, for example, pull together the essence of a situation in the form of a mini-summary which can be used to compare you understanding of the particular situation with that of the client. It is often used to probe an issue that is not understood by the social worker. It involves asking for specific details about an event. it often becomes reciprocal process between the social worker and client as each tries to understand the true meaning of what the other is saying.


Interview or dialoguing

Open-ended and closed-ended questions are used in an interview or dialogue to elaborate information. Open-ended questions give the client the opportunity to discuss in more depth the aspects of the problem that they see as important. The questions often begin with "how" or "what". Closed-ended questions give the social worker the opportunity to clarify details of the client's narrative. They are often used late in a session to check for accuracy.


Validating Feelings

A social worker validates a client's feelings by conveying an understanding for them. This building a rapport and helps the client to identify and sort out a variety of feelings. The social worker must also consider non-verbal emotional responses in developing this understanding.



some say this is the first and most important skill, since it underlies many of the other skill. Without it, the social worker cannot fully appreciate the message and feelings of the client.


Direct Practice Skills used by Social Workers when working with individuals and families.

Listening, Validating feelings, Interviewing or Dialoguing, Paraphrasing, Clarifying, Summarizing, Giving information, Interpreting, Building consensus


What are the Elements of The Helping Relationship (developed by Carl Rogers)?

Warmth, Empathy, Genuineness


What are the three fields of direct practice

Social Work with Individuals, Social Work with Groups, Social Work with Communities.



To be this is to be real and authentic in the helping relationship. Not being a phoney, putting on false fronts, or hiding behind professional masks or roles. Being aware of how you are feeling, what you are thinking, and even how your body might be reacting helps social worker be genuine.



the capacity to understand another person's subjective experience and their personal frame of reference by means of listening and curiosity directed at a deeper understanding . "Put yourself in their shoes". Such understanding can generate powerful bonds of trust and rapport. This often begins with acceptance and the suspension of judgment.



It is this process in which the worker and client implement the assessment and place.

* It is directed at the meeting of the clients needs as determined as before

* the client shares with the worker any information regarding what process has been made in resolving the problem or situation


What steps are taken by the social worker in the Intervention Process?

* establishes a rapport with the client
* accompanies the client in the intervention
* provides advice and support to the client
* adjusts the intervention based on the client's information
* helps the client to resolve the problem or situation by providing new knowledge and skills that assist in solving the problem or shift the relationship to the problem



The ending of the client-worker relationship. It occurs ideally when the action plan is completed and the client's goals have been met. In the termination stage, essential records relating to the case are organized and stored. The worker must make sure the appropriate supports are in place before termination (self-support,family). If empowerment perspective is taken, termination is much smoother.


Social Work Practice

Essentially consists of a series of processes of interventionist actions. While each situation will require different interventions, the process or steps are essentially the same.

* The worker calls upon his or her repertoire of help knowledge, skills and values and applies it in particular ways in specific situations to achieved purposeful change.



both a process and a product of understanding on which action is based.

* Involves gathering relevant information and developing an understanding
* how a worker selects and analyses information will depend on the theory approach they are using, and their past experiences
* involves the art of asking questions--they are the cornerstone of this phase (as the client and those close to client)


Evidence Based-Practice

A broad trend or movement that seeks empirical evidence to validate alternate kinds of social work practice interventions. This approach asks the worker to locate empirical studies to determine how best to relate to a situation presented by a client or family. The E-B practice movement is based on the belief that the more important question is which theory of intervention is more effective with which particular problem or diagnostic category.


Helping Relationship

Refers to a partnering relationship between client and a professional social worker in which it is expected that the client will confide personal information toward the attainment of specific goals and the practitioner will listen and become involved in a manner that benefits the client. This relationships accounts for as much as 30 percent of positive client outcome compare to the intervention model (15%).



Warmth communicates to the client that you are approachable and kind and genuinely care about them. It does not mean we are engaging small talk, or making a social visit. But it means we take the time to care about the client's physical needs and their state of mind, even if we are busy.



is based on sets of decision made by the worker and the client that are shaped by the workers analysis of the information collected in the assessment phase. The planned actions may be at a wide variety of may be at a wide variety of levels: individual, environmental, multi-person, systemic, or structural. The empowerment perspective is crucial-->gives client self-determination.


(Planning stage) The social worker assesses the client's problem with the client and negotiates a plan with the client that includes:

* the type of actions or interventions
* the length of the intervention
* the frequency of their meetings and the desired effects
* the intervention plan (where a contract is made with the client)


In the final step (of evaluation), the social worker evaluates the following items with the client and the social worker supervisor

* the choice of the intervention
* the length of the intervention
* the frequency of their meetings
* the outcomes
* the need for any follow up
* when to terminate the intervention



is an ongoing part of the social work process. Evaluation should identify the rationale for the actions chose, whether or not needs were met, the expected and unexpected effete, and alternative courses of action that may need to be taken. The clients participation use to not be valid. However it is becoming more common as their participation proves to be very helpful.