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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (127)
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1

Define Thinking

higher order mental process

2

What does thinking consist of

organizing and attempting to understand info and communicating info to others

3

What are he components of thought?

representations that resemble:
1. Concepts
2. images
3. Schemas
4. Scripts

4

Define mental Images:

representations that resemble the object or event represented

5

Define Concepts

mental representations of categories of items or ideas, based on experience

6

Concepts are categorized in groups of:

objects
events
people

7

Concepts share ___________

common properties

8

Define prototypes

representative example of a concept

9

prototypes determine how we_______

respond to stimulus

10

Prototypes aid in

efficient processing of info

11

True/False
Prototypes never have errors.

False
they may have errors

12

Define Natural Concepts:

concepts formed from experiences in the real world

13

Define artificial concepts:

concepts learned from scholarly stuff

14

What are the levels of a concept hierarchy?

Superordinate
Basic
Subordinate levels

15

Example of a superordinate concept

fruit

16

Define superordinate concept

very general concept

17

Give an example of a basic level concept

an apple

18

give an example of a superordinate concept

Granny Smith apple

19

Define schema

knowledge clusters that provide expectations

20

Schemas provide expectations for:

topics
events
objects
people
situations in one's life

21

Define script (event schema):

cluster of knowledge about sequences of events and actions expected to occur in a particular setting

22

good thinkers know a lot of______

algorithms
heuristics

23

Good thinkers know how to avoid______

Common impediments to problem solving and decision making

24

What are the 3 basic steps to problem solving?

1. preparation
2. Production
3. Evaluation

25

Define reasoning

using info to draw conclusions and make decisions

26

reasoning involves:

retrieving answers from LTM
Trial and Error
Algorithms

27

Define algorithms:

formula that is always successful

28

Wha is a syllogism?

specific formula that is logical

29

Define heuristic:

rule of thumb

30

Define Creativity:

combining responses or ideas in novel ways