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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (30)
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1

Facilitated diffusion

Using proteins to aid in diffusion when molecules are moving down their concentration gradients

2

Osmosis

Diffusion of water down its concentration gradient

3

ECM

Structure found on the outside of the animal cell; used for support and recognition

4

Amphipathic

The term for when something has a hydrophobic part and also a hydrophilic part

5

Darson and Danielli

Came up with the sandwich model (two d's, two pieces of bread) for the plasma membrane with phospholipids on the inside and the protein layers on the outside

6

Passive transport

Transport across the plasma membrane that does not require energy

7

Isotonic

A type of solution where the solute concentration on the outside of the cell is equal to that on the inside

8

Gated channels

Electrical or chemical stimulus causes these channels to open or close

9

Pinocytosis

Cell drinking; bringing small particles into the cell, requires energy

10

Electrogenic pumps

These generate a voltage across a membrane

11

Glycoproteins

These are components of the ECM that are used for recognition

12

Aquaporins

Channels in the plasma membrane that allow water through

13

Dynamic equilibrium

The process that occurs when there are equal concentrations of solutes across the membrane but there is still constant movement; there is no net charge in concentration on either side

14

Integral proteins (integrins)

Proteins that go all the way through the membrane

15

Singer and Nicolson

These two scientists came up with the current fluid mosaic model for the plasma membrane

16

Active transport

Transport that requires energy to move things across the membrane

17

Hypertonic

A type of solution where there is a higher concentration of solute OUTSIDE the cell

18

Membrane potential

Voltage across a membrane

19

Receptor mediated endocytosis

A form of bringing things into the cell where a molecule has to bind with a receptor on the outside of the cell in order to signal the process of bringing it in; this requires energy

20

Cotransport

When something is pumped out of (or into) the cell and then diffuses back in (or out) by attaching to a different molecule (similar to the idea of hitching a ride)

21

Hypotonic

A type of solution where there is a higher concentration of solute inside the cell

22

Sodium Potassium pump

Most common electrogenic pump in animals

23

Exocytosis

Process of moving things out of the cell; requires energy

24

Osmoregulation

Adaptions that organisms have to control the water balance in hypotonic or hypertonic solutions

25

Diffusion

Movement of molecules down their concentration gradients; does not require energy

26

Cholesterol

A molecule found in the cell membrane that can either make the membrane more rigid or more fluid depending on the temperature of the environment

27

Peripheral

Proteins that are found either on the inside or the outside of the cell membrane (not through it)

28

Phagocytosis

Cell eating; the process of bringing larger molecules into the cell; this requires energy

29

Oligosaccharide

Short polysaccharide chains that function as markers in the ECM

30

Endocytosis

The process of using energy to bring something INTO the cell