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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (54):
1

The acquisition, from experience, of new knowledge, skills, or responses that results in a relatively permanent change in the state of the learner

Learning

2

A general process in which repeated or prolonged exposure to a stimulus results in a gradual reduction in responding

Habituation

3

Presentation of a stimulus leads to an increased response to a later stimulus

Sensitization

4

The psychologist that kick-started the behaviourist movement to never use the terms "consciousness", "mental states", "mind", "content", "introspectively verifiable", "imagery", etc.

John B. Watson

5

Was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology for his work on the salivation of dogs

Ivan Pavlov

6

When a neutral stimulus produces a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally produces a response

Classical Conditioning

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Basic Elements of Classical Conditioning

Unconditioned Stimulus (US)
Unconditioned Response (UR)
Acquisition
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
Conditioned Response (CR)

8

Something that reliably produces a naturally occurring reaction in an organism

Unconditioned Stimulus

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A reflexive reaction that is reliably produced by an unconditioned stimulus

Unconditioned Response

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The phase of classical conditioning when the CS and the US are presented together

Acquisition

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A previously neutral stimulus that produces a reliable response in an organism after being paired with a US

Conditioned Stimulus

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A reaction that resembles an unconditioned response but is produced by a conditioned stimulus

Conditioned Response

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A type of learning where a CS is paired with a stimulus that became associated with the US in an earlier procedure

Second-order Conditioning

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The gradual elimination of a learned response that occurs when the CS is repeatedly presented without the US

Extinction

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The tendency of a learned behaviour to recover from extinction after a rest period

Spontaneous Recovery

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The CR is observed even though the CS is slightly different from the CS used during acquisition

Generalization

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The capacity to distinguish between similar but distinct stimuli

Discrimination

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What were the following in the Little Albert Study?:
-Unconditioned Stimulus
-Conditioned Stimulus
-Conditioned Response

US - the loud sound
CS - the presence of the rat
CR - a fearful reaction

19

Properties of Evolutionary Mechanisms in Classical Conditioning

-rapid learning should occur in one or two trials
-conditioning should be able to take place over long intervals (several hours)
-organism should develop the aversion to the smell or taste of the food rather than its ingestion
-learned aversions should occur more often with novel foods than familiar ones

20

A tendency of learning particular kinds of associations over others

Biological Preparedness

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A type of learning in which the consequences of an organism's behaviour determine whether it will repeat that behaviour in the future

Operant Conditioning

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A principle that behaviours that are followed by a "satisfying state of affairs" tend to be repeated, and those that produce an "unpleasant state of affairs" are less likely to be repeated; developed by Edward Thorndike

Law of Effect

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A term coined by B.F. Skinner that referred to behaviour that an organism performs that has some impact on the environment

Operant Behaviour

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A way to study operant behaviour scientifically; allows a researcher to study the behaviour of small organisms in a controlled environment

Operant Conditioning Chamber
OR
Skinner Box

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Any stimulus or event that increases the likelihood of the behaviour that led to it

Reinforcer

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Any stimulus or event that decreases the likelihood of the behaviour that led to it

Punisher

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Skinner used these terms for situations in which a stimulus was presented and for situations in which it was removed (respectively)

Positive
Negative

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A stimulus presented that increases the likelihood of a behaviour

Positive Reinforcement

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A stimulus is removed that increases the likelihood of a behaviour

Negative Reinforcement

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A stimulus administered that reduces the likelihood of a behaviour

Positive Punishment

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A stimulus is removed that reduces the likelihood of a behaviour

Negative Punishment

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A key determinant of the effectiveness of a reinforcer/punisher

the amount of time between the occurrence of a behaviour and the reinforcer/punisher

33

In the presence of a discriminative stimulus, a response produces a reinforcer.

Three-Term Contingency

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A stimulus that indicates that a response will be reinforced

Discriminative Stimulus

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An important difference between operant conditioning and classical conditioning

Classical - the US occurs on every trial
Operant - reinforcements occur only when the proper response has been made, and they don't always occur even then

36

Two Schedules of Reinforcement

Interval Schedules
Ratio Schedules

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Two types of Interval Schedules

Fixed-Interval Schedule
Variable-Interval Schedule

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Reinforcers are presented at fixed time periods, provided that the appropriate response is made

Fixed-Interval Schedule

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A behaviour is reinforced on the basis of an average time that has expired since the last reinforcement

Variable-Interval Schedule

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Two types of Ratio Schedules

Fixed-Ratio Schedule
Variable-Ratio Schedule

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Reinforcement is delivered after a specific number of responses have been made

Fixed-Ratio Schedule

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The special case of presenting reinforcement after each response

Continuous Reinforcement

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The delivery of reinforcement is based on a particular average number of responses

Variable-Ratio Schedule

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Whereby only some of the responses made are followed by reinforcement

Intermittent Reinforcement

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The fact that operant behaviours that are maintained under intermittent reinforcement schedules resist extinction better than those maintained under continuous reinforcement

Intermittent Reinforcement Effect

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Learning that the results from the reinforcement of successive steps to a final desired behaviour

Shaping

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A behaviour that gets incrementally closer to the overall desired behaviour

Successive Approximation

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When something is learned but it is not manifested as a behavioural change until sometime in the future

Latent Learning

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A mental representation of the physical features of the environment

Cognitive Map

50

An organism ignores life-sustaining necessities for hours on end simply to receive stimulation directly in the brain. These parts of the brain are called:

Pleasure Centres

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An organism learns by watching the actions of others

Observational Learning

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Individuals initially learn a behaviour by observing another individual perform that behaviour, and then become models from which other individuals learn the behaviour

Diffusion Chain

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A type of cell found in the brains of primates that fire when an animal performs an action or when they watch someone else perform the same specific task. They play a role in the imitation of behaviour and the prediction of future behaviour

Mirror Neurons

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Learning that takes place largely independent of awareness of both the process and the products of information acquisition

Implicit Learning