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Flashcards in Chapter 7 & 8 Deck (29)
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1

What are the characteristics of hypokinetic dysarthria?

Rigidity, reduced force and ROM, slow individual but occasional fast repetitive movements

2

What is the significant issue with hypokinetic dysarthria?

decreased ROM

3

Presence of hypokinetic dysarthria is associated with _______ pathology

basal ganglia

4

What is a unique symptom of hypokinetic dysarthria?

increased rate of speech

5

T/F hypokinetic dysarthria is the only dysarthria in which most cases is caused from parkinsonism

true

6

Parkinson's Disease responds to what kind of therapy?

dopamine replacement therapy

7

What would be complaints of patient's with hypokinetic dysarthria?

-deny or minimize changes in voice
-"hard to get speech started"
-"stutter"
-fatigue
-variation in speech during medication cycle
-drooling/swallowing complaints
-stiff upper lip

8

T/F Hypokinetic dysarthria is the only dysarthria associated with rapid repetitive rate of speech (with subsequent, reduced intelligibility)

true

9

T/F All subsystems of speech are affected by hypokinetic dysarthria, especially respiration and articulation

false; voice, articulation, and prosody are affected the most

10

Name some characteristics of Parkinson's Disease

-masked faces
-tremors
-slow movement
-statue-like appearance/frozen
-difficulty initiating movement (throwing the book example)
-festination (fast, shuffling gait)
-depression
-spirantization

11

Define spirantization

replacement of stop with low intensity friction sound (example /d/ to /z/)

12

What area(s) of speech are impacted the most with hyperkinetic dysarthria?

prosody

13

Name some characteristics of involuntary movement for hyperkinetic dysarthria

abnormal, rhythmic or irregular/unpredictable, rapid or slow involuntary movements

14

What is a subtype for hyperkinetic dysarthria?

dystonia- problems with sensorimotor integration for speech motor control

15

Presence of hyperkinetic dysarthria is associated with _______ or ______ pathology

basal ganglia or cerebellar control circuit

16

What is the function for the basal ganglia control circuit?

circuitry opens the gates to intended movements and closing gates to competing or unwanted movements, and preventing “locking up” of movement

17

List some clinical characteristics of hyperkinetic dysarthria

-abnormal involuntary movements that occur during rest, static postures, and voluntary movement
-slower to develop, sustained for seconds, or prolonged to a degree that distorts posture

18

T/F abnormal involuntary movements for hyperkinetic dysarthria are exacerbated by sleep and abolished by anxiety and heightened emotions

false; abolished by sleep and exacerbated by anxiety and heightened emotions

19

T/F All patients with hyperkinetic dysarthria are aware of their abnormal movements

false; some are not aware

20

How is speech impacted with hyperkinetic dysarthria?

slurred, slow, halting or hard to get out

21

What is Myoclonus?

lightening like jerks, signle repititve jerks

22

Chorea?

rapid, purposeless movements

23

Ballismus?

large flailing movements (often associated with poor phonation)

24

Dystonia?

a disorder in which improper electrical signaling from the brain causes muscles to tighten and twist involuntarily

25

Parkinsonism?

Pt displays clinical signs of disease without same etiology

26

T/F Parkinsonism does not respond well to medications

true

27

T/F Chewing and swallowing issues are uncommon for hyperkinetic dysarthria

false; it is common

28

What is the hallmark of hypokinetic dysarthria?

reduced range of movement underlies the hypokinesia causing the dysarthria

29

List the 4 speech characteristics of hypokinetic dysarthria

-monopitch
-monoloudness
-variable rate
-imprecise consonants