Chapter 7 - Behavioural Approaches on Attitudes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7 - Behavioural Approaches on Attitudes Deck (21):
1

Regan and Fazio Study: Learn about puzzles (direct experience x read sheet)

Ps who formed attitudes based on direct experience reported attitudes that better predicted time spent on puzzle task

2

Weighting Bias for -ve information

People learn form trying new things but if we suspect something is bad we avoid it and never discover if it is actually good or bad but will approach if we think something is good (BeanFest Videogame study)

3

Biased Scanning

Can occur with opinions or role play causing exploration of arguments that support position one is advocating and ignore arguments which contradict it (Ex. RP of terminal lung cancer patient by smokers, RP in favour of an issue ex. abortion)

4

4 ways to deal w/ conflicting behaviour and attitudes

1. Change behaviour
2. Change belief
3. Reduce importance of inconsistency
4. Explain away inconsistency

5

Self-Perception Theory

Presence of small incentives cause people to guess that their attitude matches the position they advocated b/c see no external reason for why they performed behaviour

6

When is self-perception theory most relevant? (2)

1. When we do not have strong/clear attitudes
2. When our behaviour is not TOO inconsistent w/ attitudes

7

Bem Study: Tell truth or lie about funniness of cartoons based on green (lie) or amber (truth) light

Results: Ps were affected by 'accidental' exposure to lights in later rounds and inferred attitudes consistent w/ this light pattern

8

Biased wording support of religiosity (on occasion vs. frequently)

Ps in 'on occasion' condition agreed w/ more religious items making their religious behaviour salient -> when answering non-biased Qs saw self as more religious

9

IMAGINING Mind wandering about 1 or 3 things during moving study

Ps indicated they thought they would like film more if only thinking about 1 vs. 3 other things

10

Laugh track as either increasing or decreasing perceptions of humours material (or no effect)

Ps who thought increase, read book not accompanied by laugh track b/c assumed their response to laugh tracks were not intrinsic (and vice versa)

11

Foot-in-door-technique

Greater chance of compliance w/ a large request by getting a small act of compliance first (drive carefully sign)

12

Vicarious Self-Perception and when it occurs (2)

People might infer their own attributes by observing the actions of others if (1) Ps have merged identity w/ target member and (2) target's action seems freely chosen

13

Cognitive Dissonance Theory

People feel an aversive tension or dissonance from having a set of 2+ beliefs that do not fit together; will try to reduce this discomfort by changing attitude or behaviour

14

4 ways of minimizing dissonance

1. Effort Justification - hardship can influence attitudes to 'justify' actions
2. Post-Decision Spread - over time, a chosen item becomes more liked than another once equally liked item
3. Counter-attitudinal Advocacy - presenting an attitude or opinion that opposes the person's initial attitude (depends on incentive)
4. Hypocrisy - discrepancy b/w a verbal behaviour and a second behaviour that contradicts our verbal statement

15

Effort justification studies:
1. Severe x Mild initiation for Group Discussion on Sex
2. Training session (high x low x no effort) for weight loss

For both, severe/high effort led to improved attitudes toward discussion (1) or increased weight loss (2)

16

Post-decision spread poster study (irreversible or reversible choice)

Irreversible choice led to spreading effect while reversible choice led to evaluating chosen print more -vely (thought about flaws)

17

Counter-Attitudinal Advocacy Study (Boring experiment w/ $20 or $1 reward to lie)

Ps found boring task more favourable if $1 because $20 = external justification

18

Reducing counter-attitudinal advocacy (2)

1. If attitude seems anonymous
2. If can re-affirm self-integrity/self-affirmation

19

Misattribution of arousal pill study (relaxed x aroused x no effect) and choice (or not) of writing counter-attitudinal essy

No reminder = no attitude change
Reminder = attitude change UNLESS pill aroused them

20

1. Latitude of Acceptance
2. Latitude of Rejection
3. Latitude of Non-Commitment

1. range of positions a person accepts (self-perception theory)
2. range of positions a person rejections (cognitive dissonance)
3. range of positions a person neither accepts nor rejects

21

Hypocrisy studies
1. Condom speech and chance to buy condoms
2. Public visibility of recycling failures

1. Ps who made a public commitment purchased more condoms
2. B/c public, Ps changed attitude and formed more -ve attitudes about recycling