Chapter 7 Definitions: Early Adulthood Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Definitions: Early Adulthood Deck (46):
1

Early Adulthood:

Ages 20- 40

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Senescence

The natural and physical decline brought about by aging (early 20's)

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Stress:

Physical and Emotional response to events that threaten or challenge us

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Psychoneurolmmunology (PNI)

The study of the relationship between the brain, the immune system, and psychological factors
- Determines the outcome of stress

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Primary Appraisal:

The assessment of an events to determine whether its implications are positive, negative, or neutral
-e.g: you are likely to feel differently about an upcoming french test if you passed the last one with flying colours rather than if you did poorly

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Secondary Appraisal:

The assessment of whether ones coping abilities are resources are adequate to overcome the harm, threat or challenge posed by the potential stressor
- Can I handle it?
- e.g If you get a traffic ticket it is upsetting but if you can't afford the fine then the strew is greater

7

Psychosomatic Disorder

- Consequence of stress
- Caused by interaction os psychological, emotional and physical difficulties
- e.g: ulsers, asthma, high blood pressure

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Coping:

The effort to control, reduce, or learn to tolerate the threats that lead to stress
-1. Problem Focused Coping: managing a threading situation by directly changing it to make it less stressful ( if they have to many responsibilities at work they will tell their boss and ask for less)
-2. Emotion Focused Coping - the conscious regulation of emotion ( someone who can't find a babysitter for they child while at work might say " at least I have a job in this terrible economy")

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Defensive coping:

Coping that involves unconscious strategies that distort or deny the true nature of a situation
-e.g: Failing a major test in unimportant

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Hardiness:

A personality characteristic associated with a lower rate of stress-related illness

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Postformal Thought:

Thinking that acknowledges that adult predicaments must sometimes be solved in relativistic terms. Rather than being based on purely logical processes
- Multiple causes and multiple solutions of a situation
- Dialectical thinking -> issues are not always clear cut, and that sometimes answers to questions must be negotiated.

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Acquisitive Stage:

(Schaie): The first stage of cognitive development encompassing all of childhood and adolescents in which the main developmental task is to acquire information
-CHILDHOOD ADOLESCENCE

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Achieving Stage:

The point reached by young adults in which intelligence is applied to specific situations involving the attainment of long term goals regarding careers, families and societal contributors
- Who they marry, what job to take
-YOUNG ADULTHOOD

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Responsible Stage:

- Stage where major concerns of middle-aged adults relate to their personal situations, including protecting and nourishing their spouses, families and careers
- MIDDLE ADULTHOOD

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Executive Stage:

The period in middle adulthood when people take a border perspective than earlier, including concerns about the world
- MIDDLE ADULTHOOD

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Reintegrative Stage:

The period of late adulthood during which the focus is on tasks that have personal meaning
- acquire information about issued that that specifically speak to them
- LATE ADULTHOOD

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Practical Intelligence: (Sternberg)

-Intelligence learned primarily by observing others and modelling their behaviour

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Emotional Intelligence:

The set of skills that underlie the accurate assessment, evaluation, expression, and regulation of emotions
- What allows people to get along well with others, to understand what they are feeling and experiencing

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Creativity:

Combining responses or ideas in novel ways

20

First- year adjustment reaction:

A cluster of psychological symptoms, including loneliness, anxiety, withdrawal, and depression, suffered by first year students

21

Stereotype Threat:

Obstacles to performance that come from awareness of the stereotypes held by society about academic abilities
- e.g: women seeking to achieve in fields like math and science might worry about the failure that society predicts for them

22

Social Clock

- The culturally determined psychological timepiece providing a sense of whether we have reached the major benchmarks of life at the appropriate time in comparison to our peers
- > 23 be done university and starting to work

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Intimacy vs isolation stage

According to Erikson, the period from postadolescne into the daly thirties that focuses on developing close relationships with others
- Those who experience difficulties during this stage are often lonely, isolated and fearful of relationships

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Stimulus Value Role Theory (SVR)

Theory that relationships proceed in a fixed order of 3 staged: stimulus, value, and role

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Stimulus Stage:

relationships are built on the surface, how a person looks (initial encounter)

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Value Stage:

Usually occurs between the 2 and 7th encounter, characterized by increasing similarity of values and beliefs

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Role Stage:

- The relationship is built on specific roles
- e.g: husband and wife, boyfriend and girlfriend

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Passionate (or romantic) love

- A state of powerful absorption in someone
- Intense physiological interest and arousal, and caring for anthers needs

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Companionate love:

The song affection for those with whom our lives are deeply involved

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Labelling theory of passionate love:

The theory that individuals experience romantic love when two events occur together: intense physiological arousal and situational cues suggesting that the arousal is due to love

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The 3 faces of love:

1. Intimacy component
2. passion component
3. decision commitment component

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Intimacy Component:

- component of love that encompasses feelings of closeness, affection and connectedness

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Passion component:

Component of love that comprises the motivational drives relating to sex, physical closeness and romance

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Decision/ commitment component:

- 3rd component of love that embodies the initial cognition that one loves another person and that longer-rem determination to maintain that love

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Homogamy:

The tendency to marry someone who is similar in age, race, education, religion and other basic demographic characteristics

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Marriage Gradient:

The tendency for men to marry women who are slightly younger, smaller and lower in status, and women to marry men who are slightly older, larger and higher in status

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Cohabition:

Couples living together without being married

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Career Consolidation:

Stage that is entered between ages 20- 40 when young adults become centred on their careers

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Fantasy Period: (Ginzberg)

the period lasting until about age 11
- When career choices are made and discarded without regard to skills abilities or available job opportunities

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`Tentative Period: (Ginzberg)

Second stage: which spans adolescence, when people begin to think in pragmatic terms about the requirements of various jobs and how their own abilities might fit with those jobs

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Realistic Period:

The third stage which occurs in early adulthood, when people begin to explore specific career options, either through actual experience on the job or through training for a profession, and then narrow their choices and make a commitment

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Communal Professions

Occupations that are associated with relationships
- Women (e.g nursing)

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Agentic Professions

Occupations that are associated with getting things accomplished
- Men (carpentry)

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Extrinsic Motivation:

Motivation that drives people to obtain tangible rewards, such as money and prestige

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Intrinsic Motivation:

Motivation that causes people to do the work for their own enjoyment, not for the rewards work might bring

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Status:

The evaluation of a role or person by another relevant member of a group or society