Chapter 7- Emotional And Social Development In Infancy And Toddlerhood Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7- Emotional And Social Development In Infancy And Toddlerhood Deck (122):

Cording to Erickson, this is the psychological conflict of the first year which is resolved positively when the balance of care is sympathetic and loving

Basic trust versus mistrust


Based on Ericksons theory, summarize the psychological conflict of the first year, basic trust versus mistrust, and explain how it can be positively resolved

The conflict is that no parent can be perfectly in tune with the babies need to because many factors affect parental responsiveness, such as feelings of personal happiness, current life conditions, and culturally valued child rearing practices.

When the balance of care is sympathetic and loving, the psychological conflict of the first year, basic trust versus mistrust, is resolved on the positive side. The trusting infant expects the world to be good and gratifying and as a result, he feels confident about venturing out and exploring it, and he emerges from this stage well prepared for the challenges of toddlerhood

The mistrustful baby cannot count on the kindness and compassion of others, so she protects herself by withdrawing from people and things around her


In what way did Erickson expand upon Freud's view of development during toddlerhood?

Freud viewed the parents manner of toilet training as decisive for psychological health. In Ericksons view, toilet training is only one of the many influential experiences. Toddlers have entered a new period of budding selfhood where they want to decide for themselves, not just in toileting but also in other situations


Summarize the conflict of autonomy versus shame and doubt, and explain how it can be positively resolved

Toddlers are developing a new sense of self and they want to decide for themselves. A self confident, secure two-year-old has parents who do not criticize or attack him when he fails at new skills such as using the toilet, eating with a spoon, or putting away toys. They meet his assertions of independence with tolerance and understanding.

In contrast, when parents are over or under controlling, the outcome is a child who feels forced and shamed and who doubts his ability to control his impulses and act competently on his own

Resolved favorably when parents provide young children with suitable guidance and reasonable choices


Because infants are unable to describe their feelings, ______ ________ offer the most useful evidence of infant emotions. List two reasons why this evidence can still be unreliable

Facial expressions. Cross cultural evidence reveals that people around the world associate photographs of different facial expressions with emotions in the same way

Unreliable: infants, children, and adults use diverse responses to express a particular emotion
The same general response can express several emotions


_________ ________ vary with the persons developing capacities, goals, and context, meaning that researchers must interpret multiple cues in order to understand babies emotions

Emotional expressions


Includes happiness, interest, surprise, fear, anger, sadness, and disgust-are universal in humans and other primates and have a long evolutionary history of promoting survival

Basic emotions


What are the seven examples of basic emotions?

Happiness, interest, surprise, fear, anger, sadness, and disgust


True or false: infants come into the world with the ability to express all of the basic emotions

False. Although signs of some emotions are present, babies earliest emotional life consists of little more than two global arousal states: attraction to Pleasant stimulation and with drawl from unpleasant stimulation. Only gradually do emotions become clear, well organized signals


How does the dynamic systems perspective help us understand how basic emotions become clear and well organized?

Children coordinate separate skills into more effective, emotionally expressive systems as the central nervous system develops and the child's goals and experiences change


Provide an example of how caregiver communication effects an infants emotional development

Contingent caregiver communication, in which parents selectively mirror aspects of the babies diffuse emotional behavior, helps infants construct emotional expressions that more closely resemble those of adults.

For example, a baby who responds to her parents playful interaction with a joyful face, pleasant babbling, and a relaxed posture.
In contrast, an unresponsive parent often evokes a sad face, fussy sounds, and a drooping body or an angry face, crying, and pick me up at gestures


At approximately what age do infants emotional expressions become well organized?

By the middle of the first year, emotional expressions are well organized and specific and therefore able to tell us a great deal about the infants internal state


Which interactions first evoke the social smile, and when does it develop?

As infants attend to the parents face, and the parent talks and smiles, babies knit their brows, open their mouths to coo, and move their arms and legs excitedly, gradually becoming more emotionally positive until between six and 10 weeks, the parents communication evokes a broad grin called the social smile


Laughter, which appears around _____ to ____ months, reflects faster/slower processing of information than does smiling.

3 to 4 months, reflects faster processing of information than smiling


How do expressions of happiness change between early infancy and the end of the first year?

Around the middle of the first year, baby smile and laugh more often when interacting with familiar people, a preference that strengthens the parent-child bond. Between eight and 10 months, infants more often interrupt their play with an interesting toy to relay their delight to an attentive adult. And like adults, 10 to 12 month olds have several smiles, which vary with context-a broad, cheek-raised smile in response to a parents greeting; a reserved, muted smile for a friendly stranger; and a mouth open smile drink stimulating play. By the end of the first year, the smile has become a deliberate social signal


The frequency and intensity of infants angry reactions increase/decrease with age. Why does this happen?

Increase. Older infants react with anger in a wider range of situations-when an object is taken away, an expected pleasant event does not occur, their arms are restrained, the caregiver leaves for a brief time, or they are put down for a nap.

Why? As infants become capable of intentional behavior, they want to control their own actions and the effects they produce. They are also more persistent about obtaining desired objects. Are better at identifying who caused them pain or removed a toy. Their anger is particularly intense when the caregiver from whom they have come to expect warm behavior causes discomfort. It is also adaptive, new motor capacities enable an angry infant to defend herself or become an obstacle. Anger motivates caregivers to relieve the infants distress and, in the case of separation, may discourage them from leaving again soon


Provide an example of a situation in which an infant is likely to express sadness

Sadness occurs often when infants are deprived of a familiar, loving caregiver and when parent-infant interaction is seriously disrupted


Fear reactions increase/decrease during the second half of the first year



The most frequent expression of fear for children is to unfamiliar adults, a response called:

Stranger anxiety


What are three factors that influence infants and toddlers reactions to strangers?

Temperament: some babies are generally more fearful

Past experiences with strangers

The current situation

when an unfamiliar adult picks up the infant in a new situation, stranger anxiety is likely but if the adults sits still while the baby moves around and a parent is nearby, infants often show positive and curious behavior. The stranger style of interaction-expressing warmth, holding out an attractive toy, playing a familiar game, and approaching slowly rather then abruptly-it reduces the babies here


Once wariness develops, infants use the familiar caregiver as this, the point from which to explore, venturing into the environment and then returning for emotional support

Secure base


Some researchers believe that babies first respond to others emotions through the automatic process of ________ ________, in which they match the feeling tone of the caregiver in the face-to-face communication; others, however, believe that infants gradually develop emotional responses through ________ __________.

Emotional contagion; operant conditioning


Briefly describe infants emotional responsiveness at 3 to 4 months and 4 to 5 months.

3 to 4 months: infants become sensitive to the structure and timing of face-to-face interactions. When they gaze, smile, or vocalize, they now expect their social partner to respond in kind, and they reply with positive vocal and emotional reactions. They are becoming increasingly aware of the range of emotional expressions

4 to 5 months: infants distinguish positive from a negative emotion invoices, and soon after, they do so in facial expressions. They become better at matching specific facial and vocal displays of emotion


when infants actively seek emotional information from a trusted person in an uncertain situation

Social referencing

They use the signals to evaluate the safety and security of their surroundings, to guide their own actions, and to gather information about others intentions and preferences


Second, higher order set of feelings, including guilt, shame, embarrassment, envy, and pride. Each involves injury to or enhancement of our sense of self

Self-conscious emotions


What are five examples of self-conscious emotions?

Guilt, shame, embarrassment, envy, and pride


Besides self-awareness, what ingredient is required for children to experience self-conscious emotions?

Adult instruction in when to feel proud, ashamed, or guilty


Two or false: the situations in which adults encourage children's expressions of self-conscious emotions vary from culture to culture

True. In western an individualistic nations, most children are taught to feel pride over personal achievement. In collectivist cultures such as China and Japan, calling attention to individual success evokes embarrassment and self-effacement


Refers to the strategies we use to adjust our emotional state to a comfortable level of intensity so we can accomplish our goals

Emotional self-regulation


The voluntary, effortful management of emotions, called ________ ______, develops gradually with the assistance of caregivers and to continue development of the prefrontal cortex

Effortful control


Briefly explain how caregivers contribute to children style of emotional self-regulation

Infants have only a limited capacity to regulate their emotional states in the early months. When their feelings get too intense, they are easily overwhelmed and they depend on the soothing interventions of caregivers for distraction and re-orienting of attention-being lifted to the shoulder, rocked, gently stroked, and talked to softly

Contribution to the child style of emotional self-regulation: infants whose parents read and respond contingently and sympathetically to their emotional cues tend to be less fussy, to express more pleasurable motion, to be more interested in expiration, and easier to sooth.
In contrast, parent to respond in patiently or angrily or who wait to intervene until the infant has become extremely agitated reinforce the babies rapid rise too intense to stress which makes it harder for parents to sue the baby in the future and for the baby to learn to calm herself. When caregivers failed to regulate stressful experiences for infants who cannot yet regulate them for themselves, brain structures that buffer stress me fail to develop properly resulting in an anxious, reactive child who has a reduced capacity for regulating emotions problems


By the end of the second year, gains in representation and language lead to new ways of regulating emotions. Explain how this occurs

A vocabulary for talking about feelings-happy, love, surprise, scary, mad-develops rapidly after 18 months, but toddlers are not yet good at using language to manage their emotions. Temperature Andrews tend to occur because toddlers cannot control their intense anger that often arises when an adult rejects their demands, particularly when they are fatigued or hungry. Toddlers whose parents are emotionally sympathetic but set limits, who distract the child by offering acceptable alternatives, and who later suggest better ways to handle adult refusals display more effective anger regulation strategies and social skills during the preschool years


True or false: temper tantrums occur because toddlers cannot yet use language to manage their emotions and control their anger



Early-appearing, stable individual differences in reactivity and self-regulation



Refers to quickness and intensity of emotional arousal, attention, and motor activity



Refers to strategies that modify reactivity



What are two important findings from the New York longitudinal study of temperament?

Temperament can increase a child's chances of experiencing psychological problems or, alternatively, protect a child from the negative effects of a highly stressful home life. Parenting practices can modify children's emotional styles considerably


This type of child quickly establishes regular routines in infancy, is generally cheerful, and adaptseasily to new experiences

The easy child


This type of child is irregular in daily routines, is slow to accept new experiences, and tends to react negatively and intensely

The difficult child


This type of child is in active, shows mild, low-key interactions to environmental stimuli, is negative in mood, and adjusts slowly to new experiences

The slow to warm up child


True or false: all children fit into one of the three temperament categories

False, 35% of children in the New York study did not fit into any of the categories and instead showed unique blend of temperamental characteristics


Of the three styles of temperament, this pattern places children at highest risk for adjustment problems

The difficult child pattern


What are 6 dimensions of temperament identified by Mary Rothbart?

Activity level: level of gross-motor activity

Attention span/persistence: duration of orienting or interest

Fearful distress: wariness and distress in response to intense or novel stimuli, including time to adjust to new situations

Irritable distress: extent of fussing, crying, and distress when desires are frustrated

Positive affect: frequency of expression of happiness and pleasure


The capacity to voluntarily suppress a dominant response in order to plan and execute a more adaptive response

Effortful control

Variations in effortful control are evident in how effectively a child can focus and shift attention, and hit it impulses, and manage negative emotion. Predicts favorable development and adjustment in cultures and positive outcomes include persistence, task mastery, academic achievement, cooperation, more maturity, and positive social behaviors of sharing and helpfulness


List the advantages and disadvantages of using parent reports to assess children's temperament

Advantages: convenient and take advantage of parents depth of knowledge about their child across many situations

Disadvantages: may be biased. However, parental reports are moderately related to researchers observations of children's behavior and parent perceptions are vital for understanding how parents view and respond to their child


Why can observations of temperament by researchers at home or in a laboratory be misleading?

They avoid the subjectivity of parental reports but can lead to other inaccuracies.

In homes, observers find it hard to capture all relevant information, especially events that are rare but important, such as infants response to frustration

In the unfamiliar lab setting, fearful children who calmly avoid certain experiences at home may become to upset to complete the session


Most physiological assessments of temperament have focused on ________, or ____ children, who react negatively to and withdraw from novel stimuli, and _________, or _______ children who display positive emotion to and approach novel stimuli

Inhibited or shy children; uninhibited or sociable children


True or false: most children's dispositions become more extreme as they get older because environmental factors have little effect on temperament. Explain your answer

False, most children's dispositions become less extreme overtime. Genetic make up and child rearing experiences jointly influence stability and change in temperament


What area of the brain does Kagan believe contributes to individual differences in arousal? What is its purpose?

The amygdala, and in her brain structure that controls avoidance reactions, contribute to these contrasting temperaments.

In shy, inhibited children, novel stimuli easily excites the amygdala and it's connections to the cerebral cortex and sympathetic nervous system, which prepares the body to act in the face of threat

In sociable, uninhibited children, the same level of stimulation of evokes minimal neural excitation


What are four physiological correlates of approach-withdrawal behavior?

Heart rate: the heart rates of shy children are consistently higher than those of sociable children, and they speed up further in response to unfamiliar events

Cortisol: saliva concentrations of the stress hormone cortisol tend to be higher, and to rise more in response to a stressful event in shy than in sociable children

Pupil dilation, blood pressure, and skin surface temperature: compared with sociable children, shy children show greater pupil dilation, rise in blood pressure, and cooling of the fingertips when faced with novelty

The pattern of brain waves in the frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex: shy infants and preschoolers show greater EEG activity in the right frontal lobe, which is associated with negative emotional reactivity; sociable children show the opposite pattern


Heritability research indicates that genes contribute modestly/substantially to shyness and sociability

Modestly. Experience has a profound impact


Explain how child rearing practices affect the chances that an emotionally reactive baby will become a fearful child

Warm, support of parenting reduces try and fins and preschoolers intense physiological reaction to novelty, whereas cold, intrusive parenting heightened anxiety. And if parents overprotect infants and young children who dislike novelty, they make it harder for the child to overcome and urged to retreat. Parents to make appropriate demands for their child to approach new experiences help shy youngsters overcome fear


True or false: temperamental stability from one age period to the next is generally low to moderate



Long term predictions about early temperament are best achieved after this age, when styles of responding are better established

Age 3


True or false: child rearing plays an important role in modifying biologically-based temperamental traits

True. Toddlers and young preschoolers who have fearful or negative, irritable temperaments but experience patient, supportive parenting are better at managing their reactivity and are specially likely to decline in difficultness


Research shows that identical twins are/are not more similar than fraternal twins in temperament and personality

Identical twins are more similar than fraternal twins across a wide range of temperamental traits and personality measures


Describe ethnic and sex differences in early temperament

Ethnic: compared with Caucasian American infants, Chinese and Japanese babies tend to be less active, irritable, and vocal, more easily soothed when upset, and better at quieting themselves

Sex: from an early age, boys are more active and daring, more irritable when frustrated, more likely to express high intensity pleasure in play, and slightly more impulsive then girls-factors that contribute to boys higher injury rate throughout childhood and adolescence. Girls in contrast, tend to be more anxious and timid and girls large advantage and effortful control undoubtedly contributes to their greater cooperativeness, better school performance, and lower incidence of behavior problems


True or false: evidence confirms that the development of temperament is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors

True, since a child approach to the world affects the experiences to which they are exposed


Provide One example each of how ethnic differences and sex differences affect parent-child interaction and, in turn, affect the development of temperament

Ethnic differences: Japanese mothers usually say that babies coming to the world as independent beings who must learn to rely on their parents to close physical contact. American mothers typically believe just the opposite-that they must ween babies away from dependency toward autonomy. And while Asian cultures tend to view calmness as an ideal emotional state, Americans highly value The arousal and excitement generated by new places and activities. Consistent with these beliefs, Asian mothers interact gently, soothingly, and just really with their babies, whereas Caucasian mothers use a more active, stimulating, verbal approach. Chinese and Japanese adults also discourage babies from expressing strong emotion, which contributes further to their infants tranquility

Sex differences: within 24 hours after birth, parents already perceive male and female newborns differently. Sons are rated as larger, better coordinated, more alert, and stronger; daughters are softer, weaker, and more delicate and awkward. In line with these gender stereotype believes, parents more often encourage their young sons to be physically active and assertive and their daughters to seek help and physical closeness- through the toys they provide, trucks in footballs for boys, Dora dolls and tea sets for girls, and through more positive reactions when their child exhibits temperamental traits consistent with gender stereotypes


Explain how children reared in the same family develop distinct temperamental styles

Parents often look for differences between siblings and as a result, parents often regard siblings as more distinct then other observers do and their tendency to emphasize each child unique qualities affects their child rearing practices and each child, in turn, evokes responses from caregivers that are consistent with parental beliefs and the child's developing temperament.


Both identical and fraternal twins tend to become increasingly/decreasingly similar from one another overtime. Why does this occur?

Siblings have distinct experiences with teachers, peers, and others in their community that affect development and in middle childhood and adolescence, they often seek ways to differ from one another


This model was proposed to explain how temperament and environment can together produce favorable outcomes. Involves creating child rearing environments that recognize each child's temperament while simultaneously encouraging more adaptive functioning

Goodness-of-fit model


How does the goodness of fit model help to explain why children with difficult temperaments are at high risk for future adjustment problems?

Difficult children frequently experience parenting that fits poorly with their dispositions, putting them at high risk for later adjustment problems. As infants, they are less likely to receive sensitive caregiving. By the second year, their parents tend to resort to angry, punitive discipline, which undermines the development of effortful control. As a child reacts with the financing disobedience, parents become increasingly stressed and as a result, they continue their course of tactics and also discipline and consistently, sometimes rewarding the child's not compliance by giving into it. These practices the stain and even increase a child irritable, conflict writing style. When parents are positive and sensitive, which helps infants and toddlers regulate emotion, difficultness declines by age 2 or 3


True or false: cultural values have little effect on the fit between parenting and child temperament. Provide an example that proves or disproves the statement

False, cultural values also affect the fit between parenting and child temperament, as research in China illustrates. In the past, collectivist values, which discourage self-assertion, let a Chinese adults to evaluate shy children positively. Several studies showed that shy Chinese children of a decade or two ago appeared well-adjusted, both academically and socially. But rapid expansion of a market economy in China, which requires assertiveness and sociability for success, May be responsible for a recent change in Chinese parents and teachers attitudes towards childhood shyness. Among shanghai fourth-graders, the association between shyness and adjustment also changed over time. Whereas shyness was positively correlated with teacher rated confidence,. Seconds, leadership, and academic achievement in 1990, these relationships weekend in 1998 and reversed into thousand two, when they mirrored findings of western research


The strong affectionate tie we have for special people in our lives that leads us to experience pleasure and joy when we interact with them and to be comforted by their nearness in times of stress



Expanding on Freud's views, Erickson emphasized the importance of the quantity/quality of caregiving in promoting successful development during infancy

Quality: relieving discomfort promptly and sensitively, holding the infant gently, waiting patiently until the baby has had enough milk, and weaning when infant shows less interest in breast or bottle


True or false: both psychoanalytic and behaviorist theories emphasize feeding as an important context in which infants and caregivers build a close emotional bond

True but for different reasons. According to a well-known behaviorist account, infants learn to prefer the mother soft caresses, warm smiles, and tender words because these events are paired with tension relief as she satisfies the baby's hunger


How did research on rhesus monkeys challenge the idea that attachment depends on hunger satisfaction?

The monkeys were reared with terry cloth and wire mash surrogate mothers and clung to the soft terry cloth substitute, even though the wiremesh mother held the bottle and infants had to climb onto it to be fed. Human infants to become attached to family members who seldom feed them, including fathers, siblings, and grandparents


True or false: the ecological theory of attachment, which recognizes attachment as an evolved response that promotes survival, is the most widely accepted view of the infants emotional tie to the caregiver



According to Bowlby, during this attachment phase, built-in signals such as grasping, smiling, crying, and gazing into the adult's eyes help bring newborn babies into close contact with other humans, who comfort them. They recognize their mother smell, voice, and face but they are not yet attached to her since they do not mind being left with an unfamiliar adult

Pre-attachment phase


According to Bowlby, during this attachment phase, infants respond differently to a familiar caregiver than to a stranger. As infants learn that their own actions affect the behavior of those around them, they begin to develop a sense of trust, the expectation that the caregiver will respond when signaled, but they still do not protest when separated from her

Attachment in the making phase


According to Bowlby, during this attachment phase attachment to the familiar caregiver is evident. Babies display separation anxiety, becoming upset when their trusted caregiver leaves. Older infants and toddlers also try hard to maintain her presence and they approach, follow, and climb on her in preference to others. They use the familiar caregiver as a secure base from which to explore

Clear-cut attachment phase


According to Bowlby, during this attachment phase, rapid growth in representation and language enables toddlers to understand some of the factors that influence the parents coming and going and to predict her return and as a result, separation protest the clients. Now children negotiate with the caregiver, using requests and persuasion to alter her goals

Formation of a reciprocal relationship


According to Bowlby, this is a set of expectations about the availability of attachment figures, their likelihood of providing support during times of stress, and the self's interaction with those figures. It is a vital part of personality, serving as a guide for all future close relationships

Internal working model


This is the most widely used laboratory technique for assessing the quality of attachment between one and two years of age

Mary Ainsworth strange situation

In designing it, Mary Ainsworth and her colleagues reason that securely attached infants and toddlers should use the parent as a secure base from which to explore in an unfamiliar playroom. In addition, when the parent leaves, and unfamiliar adult should be less comforting than the parent. The strange situation takes the baby through eight short episodes in which brief separation is from and reunions with the parent occur


In the strange situation, these infants use the parent as a secure base. When separated, they may or may not cry, but if they do, it is because the parent is absent and they prefer her to the stranger. When the parent returns, they actively seek contact, and they're crying is reduced immediately. About 60% of North American infants in middle SES family show this pattern

Secure attachment


In the strange situation, before separation, these infants seem unresponsive to the parent. When she leaves, they react to the stranger in much the same way as to the parent. Upon her return, they are slow to greet her

Avoidant attachment


In the strange situation, before separation, these infants seek closeness to the parent and fail to explore. When she returns, they display angry behaviors, may continue to cry after being picked up, and cannot be easily comforted

Resistant attachment


In the strange situation, this pattern reflects the greatest insecurity. When the parent returns, these infants show confused, contradictory behaviors, such as looking away while being held or approaching the parent with calmed down or display odd, frozen postures

Disorganized/disoriented attachment


This is an alternative method to the strange situation, suitable for children between one and four years, and depends on home observations. Either the parent or a highly trained observer sorts 90 behaviors-such as child greets mother with a big smile when she enters the room-into nine categories ranging from highly descriptive to not at all descriptive of the child. Then a score, ranging from high to low insecurity, is computed

Attachment Q-sort


Describe the link between SES and children's attachment security

Quality of attachment is usually secure and stable for middle SES babies experiencing favorable light conditions. And infants who moved from insecurity to security typically have well-adjusted mothers with positive family and friendship ties.

In contrast, in low SES families with many daily stresses and little social support, attachment generally moves away from security or changes from one insecure pattern to another


Securely/insecurely attached babies are more likely to maintain their attachment status. What is one exception to this trend?

Securely attached babies more often maintain their attachment status then insecure babies, whose relationship with the caregiver is, by definition, fragile and uncertain.

The exception is disorganized/disoriented attachment-and insecure pattern that is a stable as attachment security: nearly 70% retainage classification overtime. Many disorganized/disoriented infants experience extremely negative caregiving, which may disrupt emotional self-regulation so severely that confused, ambivalent feelings toward parents persist


What are two examples of how cultural variations in child rearing affect attachment security?

German infants show considerably more avoidant attachment that American babies do. But German parents value independence and encourage their infants to be non-clingy, so the babies behavior may be an intended outcome of cultural beliefs and practices.

In contrast, a study of infants of the Dogon people of Mali, Africa, revealed that none showed avoidant attachment to their mothers. Even when grandmothers are primary caregivers, Dogon mothers remain available to their babies, holding them close and nursing then promptly in response to hunger and distress


List four important factors that affect attachment security

Early availability of a consistent caregiver, quality of caregiving, the babies characteristics, and family context, including parents internal working models


True or false: adoption research shows that children can develop a first attachment bond as late as 4 to 6 years of age

True. These children were more likely to display attachment difficulties, including an excessive desire for adult attention, overfriendliness to unfamiliar adults and peers, failure to check back with the parent in anxiety arousing situations, and few friendships


True or false: sensitive caregiving-responding promptly, consistently, and appropriately to infants and holding them tenderly-is moderately related to attachment security in both biological and adoptive mother-infant pears and in diverse cultures and SES groups

True. In contrast, insecurely attached infants tend to have mothers who engage in less physical contact, handle them awkwardly or in a routine manner, and are sometimes resentful and rejecting, particularly in response to infant distress


A special form of communication separated the experiences of secure from insecure babies. It is best described as a sensitivity tubed emotional dance, in which the caregiver responds to infant signals in a well-timed, rhythmic, appropriate fashion. In addition, both partners match emotional states, especially the positive ones

Interactional synchrony


True or false: moderate adult-infant coordination is a better predictor of attachment security then tight coordination, in which the adult response to most infant cues. Briefly explain your response

True. Perhaps warm, sensitive caregivers use a relaxed, flexible style of communication in which they comfortably accept and repair emotional mismatches, returning to a synchronous state


Among maltreated infants, this type of attachment is especially her

Disorganized/disoriented attachment


Explain why children's characteristics do not show strong relationships with attachment

About two thirds of siblings establish similar attachment patterns with their parents, although the siblings often different temperament. This suggests that most parents try to adjust their caregiving to each child individually. The influence of Infants characteristics probably depends on goodness of fit. From this perspective, many child attributes can lead to secure attachment as long as caregiver sensitively adjust their behavior to fit the babies needs


Provide an example of how family circumstances can affect infant attachment

Job loss, a failing marriage, and financial difficulties can undermine attachment indirectly by interfering with parental sensitivity. The stressors can also affect baby sense of security directly by altering the emotional climate of the family, for example exposing them to angry adult interactions, or by disrupting familiar daily routines. Parents who managed to sustain a favorable relationship with their baby despite environmental stressors protect the child development. Social support fosters attachment security by reducing parental stress and improving the quality of parent-child communication


True or false: our early rearing experiences destine us to become sensitive or insensitive parents. Explain your answer

False, rather, the way we view our childhoods-our ability to come to terms with negative events, to integrate new information into our working models, and look back on our own parents in an understanding, forgiving way-appears to be much more influential in how we rear our children than the actual history of care we received


Who or false: American infants placed in full-time childcare before 12 months of age are more likely than home reared infants to display insecure attachment



Identify three factors that influence the relationship between childcare and attachment quality

Inadequate childcare, long hours in childcare, and the joint pressures their parents experience from full-time employment and parenthood


Based on findings from the NIC HD study of early childcare, what factors contribute to higher rates of attachment insecurity

Childcare alone did not contribute to attachment insecurity. But when babies were exposed to combined home and childcare risk factors such as insensitive caregiving at home along with insensitive caregiving and childcare, long hours and childcare, or more than one childcare arrangement, the rate of insecurity increased. Overall, mother-child interaction was more favorable when children attended higher quality childcare and also spent fewer hours in childcare


List three ways child care settings can foster attachment security

For childcare to foster attachment security, the professional caregivers relationship with the baby is vital. When caregiver-child ratios are generous, group sizes are small, and caregivers are educated about child development and child rearing, caregivers interactions are more positive and children develop more favorably


Describe how mothers and fathers different in the way they relate to and interact with the babies, and discuss how these patterns are changing due to increasing maternal employment

Mothers: devote more time to physical care and expressing affection. In play, mothers more often provide toys, talk to infants, and gently play conventional games like Patticake and peekaboo

Fathers: devote more time to playful interaction. In play, especially with their infant son's, fathers tend to engage in highly stimulating physical play with bursts of excitement and surprised that increase as play progresses. As long as fathers are also sensitive, this stimulating, starting place style helps babies regulate emotion in intensely arousing situations and may prepare them to venture confidently into active, unpredictable contexts, including novel physical environments and play with peers

These patterns are changing due to maternal employment. A recent US national survey of several thousand employed workers indicated that US fathers underage 29 devote about 85% as much time as mothers do to children, on average, just over four hours per workday, nearly double the hours young fathers reported three decades ago. Their involvement has also increased substantially.


Explain how family attitudes and relationships affect fathers caregiving and involvement with infants

When both mothers and fathers believe that men are capable of nurturing infants, fathers devote more time to caregiving. A warm marital bond and support of coparenting promote both parents sensitivity and involvement and children's attachment security, but it is especially important for fathers


Nearly 2,400,000 US children-4 to 5% of the child population-live with their grandparents but apart from parents, in so called:

Skipped-generation families


In which ethnic groups are grandparents most likely to assume the parenting role?

African-American, Hispanic, and Native American family's than in Caucasian families


Why can assuming the parenting role be stressful for grandparents?

Unfavorable child-rearing experiences have left their mark on children, who show high rates of learning difficulties, depression, and antisocial behavior. Absent parents' adjustment difficulties strain family relationships. Parents may interfere by violating the grandparents behavior limits, taking grandchildren away without permission, or making promises to children that they do not keep. These youngsters also introduced financial burdens into household that often are already low income. And grandparent caregivers, at a time when they anticipated having more time for spouses, friends, and leisure, instead have less and many report feeling emotionally drained, depressed, and read about what will happen to the children if their own health fails


When a new baby arrives, how is a preschool age sibling likely to respond? Include both positive and negative reactions in your answer

Positives: older children show affection and concern-kissing and putting the baby. By the end of the first year, babies typically spend much time with older siblings and are comforted by the presence of a preschool-aged brother or sister during short parental absences. Throughout childhood, children continue to treat older siblings as attachment figures and in the second year, as toddlers imitate and join in play with their brothers and sisters, sibling start to become gratifying sources of companionship

Negative: the arrival of a new baby is a difficult experience for most preschoolers who must now share their parents attention and affection and they often become demanding, clingy, and deliberately not before time. Attachment security also typically declines, especially for children over age 2


What are four ways in which mothers can promote positive relationships between infants and their preschool-age siblings

Spend extra time with older child, handle sibling misbehavior with patience, discuss the babies wants and needs, express positive emotion toward your partner and engage in joint problem-solving


True or false: fathers warmth toward their children predicts later cognitive, emotional, and social competencies as strongly as mothers warmth



List two factors that promote paternal warmth

The amount of time father spend near infants and toddlers and their expressions of caring and affection. Fathers in gratifying marriages feel more confident about their parenting skills and spend more time with and interact more effectively with their infants


How does peer interaction promote the development of verbal communication?

Coordinated interaction with peers, largely in the form of mutual imitation involving jumping, chasing, or banging a toy, results in imitative, turn taking games that create joint understandings that aid verbal communication


Explain the link between attachment to a sensitive caregiver and early peer relationships

From interacting with sensitive adults, babies learn how to send and interpret emotional signals in their first pier so Setian's. Toddlers who have a warm parental relationship or who attend high-Quality childcare with a small group size and a generous caregiver-child ratio engage in more positive and extended periods changes and these children, in turn, display more socially competent behavior as preschoolers


In a longitudinal study conducted by Sroufe and his collaborators, how did teachers rate preschoolers who were securely attached as babies? How did camp counselors rate their peer interaction at age 11?

Preschoolers: rated by their teachers as higher in self-esteem, social skills, and empathy then were their insecurely attached counterparts, who displayed more behavior problems

Age 11: had more favorable relationships with peers, closer friendships, and better social skills and easy well functioning school-age children became adolescents and young adolescents who continued to benefit from more supportive social networks, formed more stable and gratifying romantic relationships, and attained higher levels of education


Which attachment pattern is consistently related to fear, anxiety, anger, and aggression during the preschool and school years?

Disorganized/disoriented attachment


Some researchers have suggested that continuity of care giving determines whether attachment is linked to later development. Briefly explain this relationship

Children whose parents respond sensitively not just in infancy but also in later years are likely to develop favorably. In contrast, children whose parents react insensitively or who, over a long period, are exposed to a negative family climate tend to establish lasting patterns of avoidant, resistant, or disorganized behavior and are at greater risk for developmental difficulties


True or false: over the first few months, an infant's self-awareness is limited and is expressed only in perception and action. Provide two examples that prove or disapprove the statement.

True. When shown to side-by-side with you images of their kicking legs, one from their own perspective and one from an observer's perspective, three-month-old looked longer at the observers view.
In another video image comparison, they look longer at a reversal of their leg position then at a normal view.
This suggests that young babies have a sense of their own body as a distinct entity, since they have habituated to it, as indicated by their interest in novel views of the body


Provide an example illustrating how, by age 2, self recognition is well underway

Children point to themselves in photos and refer to themselves by name or with a personal pronoun such as I or me


True or false: as early as 18 months, toddlers have an understanding of their own body dimensions and no longer make scale errors

False, they will try to put on dolls clothes, fit them selves into a doll sized chair, or walk through a doorway too narrow for them to pass through. Scale errors decline around age 2, but many 2 1/2 year-old still make them


How does sensitive caregiving promote self awareness.

Compared to their insecurely attached age mates, securely attached toddlers display more complex self related actions during play, such as making a doll labeled as a self take a drink or kiss a teddy bear. They also show greater knowledge of their own physical features. 18-month-old who often established joint attention with their caregivers are events in mirror self recognition and joint attention offers toddlers many opportunities to engage in social referencing-to compare their own and others' reactions to objects and events, which means his daughters awareness of their own physical uniqueness


The ability to understand another's emotional state and feel with that person, or respond emotionally in a similar way

Empathy. Self-awareness leads to first efforts to understand another's perspective. Toddlers increasingly appreciate others intentions, feelings, and desires. Older toddlers who have experienced sensitive caregiving and emotionally available parents draw on their advancing cognitive, language, and social skills to express first signs of empathy


List for categories that children can use to refer to themselves and others by the end of the second year

On the basis of age, sex, physical characteristics, and even goodness and badness. They also start to refer to the self's competencies


Give an example of how toddlers use categories to organize their own behavior.

As early as 17 months, children select and play in a more involved way with toys that are stereotyped for their own gender-dolls and tea sets for girls, trucks and cars for boys.


List three developmental milestones that are essential for the development of self control

A firmer sense of self, children must think of themselves as separate, autonomous beings who can direct their own actions, and they must have the representational and memory capacities to recall a caregivers directive and apply it to their own behavior


Once toddlers become capable of compliance, do they always obey requests and demands? Explain

They do not always obey demands, although defiance in preschoolers is associated with negative parent-child relationships and poor adjustment, toddlers who sometimes strongly resist parental demands tend to have sensitive, supportive parents with whom they interact positively. These parents recognize that young child's need for self-assertion and autonomy


True or false: toddlers who experience parental warm and gentle encouragement are more likely to be cooperative and advanced in self-control



Children who are advanced in ________ __ _________ and _________ are often better than their peers at delaying gratification

Development of attention and language. Finding that help explain why girls are typically more self-controlled than boys


List two ways adults can help toddlers develop compliance and self-control

Respond to the toddler with sensitivity and encouragement, provide advance notice when the toddler must stop an enjoyable activity, offer many prompts and reminders, respond to self controlled behavior with verbal and physical approval, encourage selective and sustained attention, support language development