Chapter 7 (Lecture Objective 5) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7 (Lecture Objective 5) Deck (13):
1

How is the skeletal system classified?

There are two portions of the skeletal system the axial and appendicular skeletons. Axial skull, vertebral column, thoracic cage. The appendicular is everything else.

2

What are the main features of the sphenoid bone?

Butterfly or bat-shape, structurally it has a central body and 3 pairs of processes (greater wings, lesser wings, pterygoid processes), and within the body it provides the spaces for the sphenoidal sinuses which make the skull lighter.

3

Name the bones that form the orbital foramen.

The three main function of the paranasal sinuses are to connect the sinuses to the nasal cavity, to lighten the skull, and enhance the resonance of the voice

4

What is the significance of the following structures: foramen magnum, foramen ovale, jugular foramen, sella turcica, optic canal, mastoid process, mental foramen, mandibular foramen, superior orbital fissure, dens and the cribriform plate?

Foramen magnum: inferior part of brain connect with spinal cord
Foramen ovale: provide passageways for branches of the cranial nerve V to reach the face
Jugular foramen: allow passage of internal jugular vein and 3 cranial nerves (IX, X, XI)
Sella turcica : bony seat for pituitary gland
Optic canal : allow optic nerves (cranial nerves II) to pass to the eyes
Mastoid process : anchoring site for some neck muscles
Mental foramen : allow blood vessels and nerves to pass to skin of chin
Mandibular foramen : permit nerves responsible for tooth sensation to pass to teeth in lower jaw
Superior orbital fissure : allows cranial nerves that control eye movements (III, IV, VI) to enter orbit
Dens : pivot for rotation of atlas
Cribriform plate : help form the roof of nasal cavity and floor of anterior cranial fossa

5

What are the regional characteristics of vertebrae?

Movements that can occur between vertebrae are flexion/extension, lateral flexion, rotation

6

What are the distinct features of the atlas and axis

The distinct features of the atlas and axis are : no intervertebral disc between them, the atlas has no body, no or spinous process, the axis has a structure called the dens projecting from body.

7

What are the functions of paranasal sinuses?

The three main function of the paranasal sinuses are to connect the sinuses to the nasal cavity, to lighten the skull, and enhance the resonance of the voice

8

What are floating ribs, false ribs and true ribs?

Floating ribs: no anterior attachments
False ribs: attach indirectly to sternum, or lack any sternal attachment
True: attach directly to sternum

9

What are the main differences between a male and female pelvis?

bone thickness - females thinner, pubic arch angle- females larger, acetabula- females small, sacrum - females wider and shorter, coccyx - females moveable and strait

10

What structural feature allows more mobility in the shoulder (relative to the hip)?

The shoulder has a shallow glenoid cavity which allows for a larger range of motion than the hip.

11

What are the main structures of the coxal bone?

The main structure os the coal bone are Ilium, pubis, ischium.

12

Which bones form the pelvic girdle?

The pelvic girdle is formed by the sacrum and hip bones.

13

Describe the general structure of an intervertebral disc

The general structure of a vertebral discs is : an inner gelatinous nucleus pulposus, which is surrounded by a strong collar mad of collagen fibers superficially and fibrocartilage internally, and the anulus fibrosis is the last barrier that serves to limit expansion of nucleus pulposus.