Flashcards in Chapter 8 (Lecture Objective 5) Deck (12):
How are the joints classified?
Structure and function (movement at joints)
Structural classifications of joints, and major classifications?
-Fibrous -- connected by fibrous tissue
-Cartilaginous -- connected by cartilage
-Synovial -- fluid-filled joint cavity
Functional classifications of joints, and what characterizes each?
-Synarthoses -- immovable
-Amphiarthroses -- slightly movable
-Diarthroses -- freely movable
Three types of fibrous joints, and what characterizes each?
- Sutures -- only between bones of the skull
- Syndesmoses -- bones are exclusively connected by ligaments, cords, bands of fibrous tissue
- Gomphoses -- peg-in-socket fibrous joint
Characteristics of amphiarthritic joints?
Slightly movable joint, surfaces of bones are connected by ligaments or cartilage
6 different types of synovial joints.
- Plane (nonaxial)
- Hinge (uniaxial)
- Pivot (uniaxial, rotation permitted)
- Condylar (biaxial, angular movement in 2 planes)
- Saddle (biaxial, freer movement)
- Ball-and-socket (multiaxial, rotation movement)
Types of arthritis (3)
Functions labrum, bursa
- Labrum -- fibrocartilage attached to rim of shoulder socket, keeps ball of joint in place
- Bursa -- flattened fibrous sacs lined with synovial membrane, act as lubricating layer in joints
Structural, functional classification:
intervertebral, AC, SI, and ankle (tibia, fibula, talus) joints
- TMJ -- Synovial, modified hinge; diarthrotic, gliding and uniaxial rotation
- Atlantoaxial -- Synovial, pivot; diarthrotic, uniaxial
- Intervertebral - Cartilaginous/synovial; amphiarthrotic/diarthrotic
- AC -- Synovial, plane; diarthrotic, gliding and rotation of scapula
- SI -- Synovial, plane; diathrotic in child, amphiarthrotic in adult
- Ankle -- Synovial, hinge; diarthrotic, uniaxial
Describe the following movements: flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, supination, pronation,
dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, inversion, and eversion.
- Flexion -- bending movement, decreases the angle of the joint and brings articulating bones closer
- Extension -- bending movement, increases the angle of the joint and brings articulating bones further
- Abduction -- movement of limb away from midline, along frontal plane
- Adduction -- movement of limb toward midline
- Supination -- rotating forearm so palms face anteriorly or superiorly
- Pronation -- forearm rotates medially and palms face posteriorly or inferiorly
- Dorsiflexion -- lifting the foot so that its superior surface approaches the shin
- Plantar flexion -- depressing the foot and flattening toes
- Inversion -- sole of the foot turns medially
- Eversion -- sole of the foot faces laterally
Major structures of the shoulder joint
- Glenoid labrum -- 1/3 size of humeral head, provides little stability
- Coracohumeral ligament -- provides only strong thickening of capsule, helps support weight of upper limb
- Glenohumeral ligaments -- strengthen the front of the capsule somewhat, are weak or absent
- Rotator cuff -- encircles shoulder joints and blends with articular capsule