Chapter 7 The Industrial Revolution Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7 The Industrial Revolution Deck (58):
1

Industrial revolution

-started in Britain
-started with textile factories
-complex machines
-new power replaced human and animal
-spread quickly

2

Agricultural Revolution

Improved methods of farming

3

Charles Townshend

crop rotation (turnips)

4

Jethro Tull

seed drill

5

Enclosure

taking over and fencing off peasant land= larger and more efficient

6

Enclosure results

-profits higher
-urbanization

7

Urbanization

jobless peasants move to cities to become machine operators

8

Industrial revolution changes

-factory work different
-rural life disappearing
-new inventions = lower death rate

9

Population explosion

120 million to 190 million in 30 years

10

why the population exploded

-death rates went down
-birth rates rose
-agricultural revolution decreased famine
-better hygiene and medical care = fewer deaths from disease

11

__________ moved machines in factories until the ____________

water wheel; steam engine

12

James Watt

steam engine

13

using natural resources =

pollution

14

6 reasons the industrial revolution began in Britain (factors that lead the way)

-Human Resources
-natural resources
-new technology
-stable government and good social conditions
-stable economy
-better transportation

15

Most vital resources to the industrial revolution

Coal and iron

16

Capital

Money used to invest in enterprises

17

Enterprise

A business organization in an are such as shipping, mining, railroads, and factories

18

Entrepreneurs

those who managed and assumes the financial risks of starting a new business

19

How did population explosion contribute to demand for consumer goods?

the more people, the more demand for goods

20

How did general economic prosperity contribute to the demand for consumer goods?

People make more money, people buy more

21

Putting out system

cottage industry; raw cotton is distributed to peasant families who spun it into thread, then wove thread into cloth in their own homes

22

John Kay

flying shuttle

23

James Hargreaves

spinning Jenny

24

Richard Arkwright

water frame

25

Eli Whitney

inventor of the cotton gin

26

what is a factory and what is the effect?

places that brought together workers and machines to produce large quantities of goods

27

Turnpikes

private roads built by entrepreneurs with a toll fee

28

Robert Fulton

steam boat

29

2 reasons the railroad was important to the industrial revolution

1) ship goods cheaply over land
2) allowed tracks to go places rivers didn't

30

George Stephenson

Steam locomotive (preferred use of transportation)

31

First major railroad in England

Liverpool to Manchester

32

"It was the best of times, it was the worst of times."

Charles Dickens

33

Tenement

Multistory buildings divided in apartments

34

Labor unions

Workers' organizations

35

Describe early industrial cities

Extremely dirty, no sanitation, garbage in streets

Lead to cholera and diseases

36

What is different from farm work and factory work?

-12-16 hour work days
-monotonous
-rigid schedule
-unsafe (accidents/injuries were common)
-breathing dirty air

37

why prefer women workers

-pay them less
-easier to manage

38

Why did factories use child labor?

-could fit in narrow mine shafts
-quick little fingers for textiles

they were known as "slaves to the machine"
beaten if idle and they were uneducated

39

Who is Patience Kershaw

a little girl who told her story. she shocked Britain and helped cause the "Factory Acts" which helped reform employment of children in mines and factories

40

Luddites

-textile workers who hated technology & machines
-smashed machines
-burnt factories
-they were hung or sent to Australia

41

John Wesley

founded Methodism

42

Methodism

-give hope and confidence to working class
-Sunday school gave education for children
-encouraged adopting sober, moral ways

43

Who benefited from the industrial revolution?

Entrepreneurs

44

What were the reforms made?

-labor unions legalized
-working class men gained the right to vote
-education

45

Benefits of the industrial revolution

-created jobs
-wealthy middle class
-wages rose
-labor unions won right to bargain
-reformers improved working conditions

46

Challenges of industrial revolution

-crowded cities
-pollution
-struggle for survival in slums
-harsh working conditions in factories and mines
-child labor

47

Adam Smith

-capitalism
-free market to regular businesses

48

Thomas Malthus

-overpopulation
-food supply would run out
-war, disease, and famine are good

49

David Ricardo

-wage increases are unnecessary
-higher wages lead to more kids which then leads to lower wages again
-poverty in a never ending cycle

50

Jeremy Bentham

-actions should be judged by one's utility
-only some government involvement

51

John Stuart Mill

-full government involvement

52

Robert Owen

-created a perfect utopia with a classless society but failed

53

Karl Marx

-father of communism

54

Utilitarianism

The idea that the goal of society should be "the greatest happiness for the greatest number"

55

Socialism

the people as a whole rather than individuals

56

communism

Theory-
Reality-

57

Proletariat

Karl Marx's word for working class

58

Social democracy

Political ideology in which there is a gradual transition from capitalism to socialism