Chapter 8 Flashcards Preview

American Government > Chapter 8 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (66):
0

groups that advance certain political goals and gains power by winning elections

political parties

1

the dominant parties in the political landscape; current ones are Democratic and Republican

major parties

2

smaller political parties usually organized around a particular issue

minor parties

3

also called minor parties

third parties

4

to name candidates for public office

nominate

5

strong devotion to a political party

partisanship

6

a political system dominated by two major parties

two-party system

7

legislative districts from which only one representative is chosen

single member district

8

the largest number of votes cast for a candidate or a bill

plurality

9

two major parties working together to support an issue

bipartisan

10

formal statement of a party's position on current issues; drafted at a party's national convention

party platform

11

a political philosophy that seeks through government action to change the political, economic, and social status quo and to encourage the development and well-being of the individual

liberal

12

a political philosophy that defends against major changes by the government to the political, economic, and social institutions of society, but rather seeks non-bureaucratic solutions to political issues

conservative

13

political system in which several parties compete for public office and majority support

multiparty system

14

a temporary alliance of several groups

coalition

15

an assembly of political party representatives at the national, state, or country level for the purpose of establishing a platform, electing party leadership, and nominating candidates

convention

16

historically, the representatives at the Constitutional convention; party representatives

delegates

17

a small meeting of a political party's top leaders and legislators in congress to select part nominees

caucus

18

the practice of giving government jobs to friends and supporters

patronage

19

also called patronage

spoils system

20

organized effort by a political party of candidate to attract voter support in an election

political campaign

21

an electrion prior to the general election in which voters select the cndidates who will run on each party's ticket

primary

22

a state-run or state-regulated election for the purpose of selecting the party nominee for most local, state, and national offices

nominating primary

23

a primary election in which voters indicate their preference for their party's presidential candidate and elect state party delegates to represent their choice at the national convention

presidential primary

24

government system in which only one political party is allowed and a select few from that party rule the country using a centralized bureaucracy and an effective police force

one-party system

25

generally concentrates on strengthening national ties to the state organizations and thereby building a more unified party

Republican National Committee (RNC)

26

places more emphasis on presidential politics and has been less effective at building strong state organizations

Democratic National Committee (DNC)

27

units into which cities are often divided for city council elections and then further divided into precincts

wards

28

smallest units of election districts and party administration

precinct

29

a group of individuals that share like opinions on a political issue or group of issues and that unite in some organization to influence government officials and further their views; also known as pressure groups

interest groups

30

voters who have no party affiliation

independent voters

31

voting for candidates of both parties for different offices

ticket splitting

32

the behaviors and policies of the party in power are carefully watched over and reported on

watchdogs

33

Who were the two first political parties in America?

Federalists and Anti-Federalists (Republicans)

34

From the time of Andrew Jackson to the Civil war, which two political parties were in power?

Whigs (elites) and the Democratic-Republicans

35

Who are the two major parties that are in power from the Civil War to today?

Democrats and Republicans

36

DT commented that people with opposing viewpoints could separate into political parties or what else?

separate nations

37

DT stated that the type of political parties he finds more successful are ones that cling to ____________, rather than to consequences.

principles

38

DT noted that political parties who strive toward noble ideals are willing to speak in what manner?

"to general, and not to especial cases; to ideas and not to men"
(to general ideas and not to special cases)

39

DT noted that minor parties are deficient in what area?

political faith

40

After the War of Independence from England, DT noted that the two political parties were not violent toward one another and that both agreed upon what two moral principles of high order?

independence (liberty) and equality

41

DT stated that the party that desired to limit the power of the people and which endeavored to apply its doctrines more especially to the Constitution was known as the _______________ party.

Federalist

42

DT stated that the party that affected to be exclusively attached to the cause of liberty was known as the ___________.

Republican

43

Which of the two parties that DT noted that were "always in the minority" but could "reckon on their side almost all of the great men whom the War of Independence has produces" and thus benefitted with American leaderahip for the first twelve years?

Federalists

44

In 1801, the other party gained control of the presidency under whom?

Thomas Jefferson

45

What did DT state was the lasting monument of the original ruling party?

The Constitution

46

Did DT believe there were great parties in the US at the time of his writing?

No

47

DT stated that the parties he witnessed while travelling in America were not based upon principles, but rather upon what?

temporal interests

48

DT stated that there were two great divisions which have always existed in free communities, what are the two divisions?

to limit and to extend the popular authority (liberty and equality)

49

DT stated that there were two chief weapons used by parties in order to obtain success, what were the two weapons?

the public press & the formation of associations

50

What is the three-step process that a political aspirant will go through in order to usher in the new party into the political world?

1. by discerning his own interests
2. by calculating upon those interests which may be collected around and amalgamated with it
3. by contriving to find some doctrine that may suit the purposes of the new association

51

What type of system is common among European democracies?

multiparty system

52

What is another name for minor party?

third party

53

What party has won most of the presidential elections since 1954?

Republican

54

Voting for candidates from both parties is called what?

ticket splitting

55

Political parties are distinguished from groups in that political parties gain power by doing what?

winning elections

56

What is the major purpose of a political party?

to nominate

57

Legislative districts from which only one representative is chosen are called...

single-member district

58

What is two major parties working together to support an issue?

bipartisanship

59

A temporary alliance of several groups to gain a majority is called...

coalition

60

T or F: The major political parties tend to be a moderating force in American politics.

True

61

T or F: The power of he two major parties has always been well balanced.

False

62

T or F: Usually political candidates try to moderate their position to please the most voters.

True

63

T or F: The Democratic party is more liberal than the Reoublican party.

True

64

T or F: Some minor political parties arise one particular issue.

True

65

"Parties are a necessary ____________ in free governments; but they have not at all times the same ______________ and the same propensities." -Alexis de Tocqueville

evil, character