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Flashcards in Midterm Review Deck (96):
1

Creation Mandate

the first commandment by God to man telling us to exercise wise & responsible dominion of the earth

2

human depravity

all men are fallen and have no innate sense of goodness; what requires governments to protect us from ourselves

3

oligarchy

a form of dictatorship government rules by an elite group with supreme power

4

theocracy

government rules directly by God or the clergy

5

democracy

government by the people

6

dictatorship

an authoritative form of government in which the ruler or rulers have unshared power over the making and enforcing of laws

7

tyranny

Rule of many becoming the rule of one.

8

jingoism

unquestioning support for the state

9

patriotism

love and devotion to one's country and a concern for its social, political, and overriding spiritual welfare

10

government

a system of public rule or authority

11

Mayflower Compact

(1620) established the first government in the New World based on a social contract

12

Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

first written constitution in the United States

13

Old Deluder Satan's Act of 1647

a law that required a town that had 50 or more families to provide a primary school

14

Act of 1642

a law issued by Massachusetts that required parents to provide for the education of their children

15

Magna Carta

(1215) The "Great Charter" that stated that there were certain rights of which the government could not rightfully deprive an Englishman of; shows that government was limited in its reach by laws that all mean, including the king, were bound to obey

16

Glorious Revolution

(1688) the bloodless revolution in England which resulted in Parliament firmly establishing its authority over the king

17

Quebec Act

a law by English Parliament that made the colonists concerned that the influence of the Catholic Church and the wars of Europe would be coming to America

18

social contract

government is formed by consent of the governed

19

Great Awakening

a revival that brought spiritual life back to importance in the colonies

20

republic

state in which the supreme power rests in the people and their elected representatives or officers

21

totalitarianism

system of government in which the state has complete control over all aspects of its citizens' lives

22

autocracy

a government ruled by one person who holds supreme power

23

federalism

system in which governmental power is divided into two or more levels, usually a central government and component local governments

24

delegated powers

powers given to the national government by the Constitution that define the limits of its authority

25

bicameral

a legislative branch divided into two separate houses

26

unicameral

a legislature made up of only one house

27

three branches of government

executive, legislative, judicial

28

reserved powers

powers the Constitution withholds from the national government but does not withhold from state governments

29

prohibited powers

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30

townships

a political subdivision of a county

31

liberty

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32

equality

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33

House of Burgessess

(1619) the first representative assembly in the New World, organized by the Virginia Colony

34

Stamp Act

a law passed by Parliament in 1765 to help pay England's war debt through a series of taxes and trade restriction on the colonies and produced more resentment than revenue from America

35

First Continental Congress

(1774) the colonial governmental meeting that sent the Declaration of Grievances to King George III

36

Second Continental Congress

(1775-89) the colonial governmental meeting that became the ruling government during the Revolutionary War

37

Articles of Confederation

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38

ratification

the formal approval process of a constitution, constitutional amendment, or treaty

39

Shay's Rebellion

the event that resulted in the new colonial government to worry about the possibility of widespread anarchy; it also convinced many state legislatures to support a revision of the Articles of Confederation

40

Federalist

advocates of the Constitution

41

Anti-Federalists

those in opposition to the Constitution and new government

42

broad constructionist

those who take a broader and somtimes more creative approach to constitutional interpretation

43

strict constructionist

those who believe that the text of the Constitution is important, and that any interpretation should be kept to a minimum

44

necessary and proper clause

also called the elastic clause; constitutional clause giving lawmakers great leeway in making laws for the execution of enumerated and implied powers

45

amendment process

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46

Bill of Rights

the first ten amendments to the Constitution

47

limited government

a principle that limits government to only those powers granted by law

48

separation of powers

the principle of separating powers among different branches of government in order to prevent any group or individual from gaining too much control

49

popular sovereignty

philosophy of government that asserts that the people are the ultimate source of their government's authority

50

checks and balances

the principle of keeping each branch of government in check through the power of another branch of government with the goal of hindering the concentration of power and thus protecting personal liberty

51

elastic clause

also known as the necessary and proper clause; this clause greatly enlarges the scope of national power and has at times been stretched to cover congressional acts

52

enumerated powers

also called expressed powers; government powers specifically listed in the Constitution

53

dual federalism

a system in which the national and state levels are sovereign within their own spheres

54

implied powers

national government powers derived from powers expressly given by the Consitution

55

full faith & credit clause

Constitutional clause requiring states to respect each other's public acts, records, and judicial hearings

56

political parties

a group that advances certain political goals and gains power by winning elections

57

major parties

the dominant parties in the political landscape, in American politics, the Republicans and Democrats

58

minor parties

also called third parties; smaller political parties usually organized around a particular issue

59

third parties

also called minor parties

60

two-party system

a political system dominated by two major partiesi

61

party platform

formal statement of a party's position on current issues; drafted at a party's national convention

62

multiparty system

political system in which several parties compete for public office and majority support; system most used in Europe

63

coalition

a temporary alliance of several groups

64

caucus

historically, a small meeting of a political party's top leaders and legislators in Congress in order to select party nominees; a form of district and state conventions used to nominate candidates in areas that do not hold primaries

65

independent voters

voters who have no party affiliation

66

ticket splitting

voting for candidates of both parties for different offices

67

bipartisan

two major parties working together to support an issue

68

partisanship

strong devotion to a political party

69

unalienable right

a right that cannot be given by government because it is not government's to give; it is a gift of God

70

pluralistic society

a society in which differing opinions and parties exist freely

71

John Locke

wrote the Two Treatises of Government; known as the one who created the idea of the social contract

72

Alexander Hamilton

wrote a majority of The Federalist Papers

73

Patrick Henry

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74

Roger Sherman

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75

Elbridge Gerry

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76

George Mason

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77

Boston Massacre

a result of Britain's sending of troops to act as the policing force in the American colonies and the outrage of the colonists towards such

78

Boston Tea Party

the American colonists' act of retaliation towards the taxes placed on tea by the British Parliament

79

Protestant Reformation

the spiritual revival that began in Europe; started by Martin Luther and his 95 Theses

80

French and Indian War

the war that caused much of Britain's debts, which led to the taxation of their colonies

81

direct primary

preliminary election held to select candidates and/or delegates to the party's convention

82

closed primary

a primary in which participants must be registered as members of one party and may vote only for the candidates from that party

83

open primary

primary in which voters do not have to declare their party membership

84

blanket primary

"wide open" primary in which every voter receives a ballot listing all party candidates for nomination and selects one candidate for each office

85

hard money

campaign money raised for a specific candidate in federal elections and spent according to federal laws and restrictions

86

soft money

campaign money raised apart from federal regulations and given to local, state, and national party organizations or PACs to be used for voting related activities

87

polling place

location in a specific precinct where those who live in that area go to vote

88

poll watchers

individuals appointed by political parties and candidates to observe the polls on election day

89

incumbent

a candidate who is the current officeholder

90

constituent

residents of a district represented by an elected official

91

slander

false verbally communicated statements which damage one's reputation or character

92

libel

published false statements that damage reputation or character

93

extradition

legal process of returning a fugitive to the state in which he has been charged with a crime

94

naturalization

the process by which a foreign-born person gains citizenship

95

English Bill of Rights

a landmark of English constitutional history

96

Open primary

primary in which voters do not have to declare their party membership