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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (29):

Differences between managers and leaders

Managers follow instructions given to them. Leaders demonstrate ability to think for themselves to bring about change/ innovate.


Trait theory

theories that support the idea that leadership is inherent, so we must identify leader based on his/her traits.


Behavioural theory

theories that support the idea that leadership is a skillset and can be taught to anyone, so we must identify the behaviour to teach to potential leaders


What 2 key dimensions of leadership did Ohio state university find?

Initiating structure - the defining and structuring of roles
Consideration - job relationships that reflect trust and respect


What 2 key dimensions of leadership did university of Michigan find?

Employee oriented - emphasizes interpersonal relationships and is the most powerful dimension
Production Oriented - emphasizes the technical aspects of the job


Contingency Theory

Stresses importance of context when examining leadership


What is the Fielder Contingency Model?

Effective group performance depends on the match between the leader's style and degree to which the situation gives control to the leader.


What are Fielder's contingency situations?

Leader-member relations: degree of trust and respect members have for leader
Task Structure: Degree to which jobs are structured
Position Power: Degree to which leaders have "power", hiring, firing, promoting, salary


Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Leadership

Model based on follower readiness. Like a parent, as a worker becomes more prepared the leader intervenes less.


What are Hersey and Blanchard's situations?

Follower able but unwilling: leader needs to use a supportive and participative style
Follower able and willing: leader uses hands off approach
Follower unable but willing: leader needs to display high task orientation and high relationship orientation
Follower unable and unwilling: Leader needs to give clear and specific directions


What are the path goal guidelines to be effective?

Determine outcomes subordinates want
reward them with desired outcomes
be clear with expectations


What are the path goal leadership styles?

Directive - Informs subordinates of expectations and gives guidelines
Supportive - friendly and approachable show concern for subordinates
Participative - Get input of subordinates
Achievement oriented - set challenging goals and employees continually improve to achieve them


What are the 4 characteristics of Charismatic Leadership

1. Have a vision
2. Are willing to take risks to achieve the vision
3. sensitive to followers needs
4. exhibit behaviour that is out of the ordinary


What is house's charismatic leadership theory?

Followers make attributions of heroic or extraordinary leadership when they observe certain behaviour


How can charismatic leaders influence followers?

1. articulate attractive vision
2. instill confidence and set high expectations for followers
3. convey new set of values by setting example
4. Demonstrates conviction about vision


What is the trait exclusive to level 5 leaders?

blend of personal humility and professional will


What are the characteristics of transactional leaders?

Contingent Reward - contracts exchange of reward for effort, promises reward for good performance, recognizes accomplishments
Management by Exception (active) - watches and observes for deviations from rules/ standards, takes corrective actions
Management by Exception (passive) - Intervenes only if standards are not met
Laissez-Faire Leader - avoids making decision
Idealized Influence - provides vision and sense of mission, instills pride, gains respect and trust


Define Transactional Leaders

Leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirement


Define Transformational Leaders

Inspire followers to transcend their own self interests for the good of the organization


What are the issues with Transformational Leadership?

Basis for actions- encourages followers to be more creative and innovative by providing ambitious goals
Evaluation Based On Research - style of leadership is taught and doesn't hold correlation with desired outcomes
transformational vs charismatic leadership - broader version of charisma and measures roughly equivalent



A senior employee who sponsors and supports a less experienced employee. Provides career and psychological support



Encourages individual to do the best they can and frequently checks on them to make sure they do so


Self- Leadership/ Management

A set of processes through which individuals control their own behavior


Team Leadership

Roles of leader divided among multiple people. Requires trust, patience, giving up authority and knowing when to intervene


Online Leadership

Digitally provided leadership. Requires identification based trust (based on mutual understanding of each other's intentions and appreciation of desires and wants) .


What are the benefits of leading without authority?

Latitude for creative deviance - easier to raise questions
Issue Focus - freedom to focus on single issue
frontline information - closer to people who have info


authentic leaders

ethical people who know who they are, understand their beliefs and values and act on them openly and candidly. They build trust by sharing info, openly communication, and sticking to their ideals.


Socialized charismatic leadership (related to moral leadership)

leadership that conveys selflessness via ethical conduct


What are the 4 cornerstones to a "moral foundation of leadership

truth-telling, promising keeping, fairness, respect to the individual