Chapter 8 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (69):
1

Alzheimer's Disease

progressive disease with degeneration of nerve endings in the cortex of the brain

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anticonvulsant

theraputic agent that stops or prevents convulsions

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aracnoid (mater)

weblike middle membrane of meninges

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associative neuron

carries messages from sensory neuron to motor neuron

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autonomic nervous system

collection of nerves, ganglia, and plexuses through which visceral organs, heart, blood vessels, glands, and smooth (involuntary) muscles receive stimulation

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axons

nerve cell structure which carries impulses away from cell body to dendrites

7

blood-brain barrier

substance cannot penetrate the brain tissue

8

brain stem

made up of three parts: the midbrain, pons, and the medulla.

9

brain tumor

may develop in any part of the brain. Symptoms depend on which area is involved.

10

central nervous system

consists of the brain and spinal cord

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cerebellum

located behind the pons and below the cerebrum. Has two hemispheres.

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cerebral aqueduct

a narrow canal that connects the third and fourth ventricles

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cerebral cortex

the outer cortex "grey matter"

14

cerebral palsy

a disturbance in voluntary muscle action due to brain damage

15

cerebral ventricals

the four lined cavaties of the brain which are filled with cerebrospinal fluid

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cerebrospinal fluid

a substance that forms inside the four brain ventricles from the blood vessels of the choroid plexuses

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cerebrum

the largest part of the brain

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choroid plexus

a rich network of blood vessels of the pia mater

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corpus callosum

the middle region of the two hemispheres is held together by a wide band of axonal fibers called...

20

dementia

a general term that includes disorders such as Alzeimer's disease, vascular dementia, others

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dendrites

carry messages to the the cell body

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diencephalon

located between the cerebrum and the midbrain

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dura mater

the outer brain covering, which lines the inside of the skull

24

encephalitis

an inflammation of the brain

25

epilepsy

a seizure disorder of the brain, characterized by recurring and excessive discharge from neurons

26

essential tremor

a nerve disorder causing tremors to occur in a person who is moving or trying to move

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fibers

processes; paths along which nerve impulses travel

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fissures

deep furrows or grooves

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fourth ventricle

situated below the third, in front of the cerebellum, and behind the pons and the medulla oblongata

30

frontal lobe

forms the anterior portion of each hemisphere. controls voluntary muscle movement

31

gyri (convolutions)

the elevated ridges between the sulci

32

hematoma

a localized mass of blood collection and may occur in the spaces between the meninges

33

hydrocephalus

a condition that involves an increased volume of cerebrospinal fluid within the ventricals of the brain

34

hypothalamus

lies below the thalamus. connected to the posterior pituitary gland, the thalamus and the midbrain by a bundle of nerves; part of the limbic system

35

interneuron

associative neurons; carry impulses from the sensory neuron to the motor neuron

36

interventricular foramen

the area that connectsthe third ventricle of the brain to the two lateral ventricles

37

lateral ventricle

the two largest ventricles located within the cerebral hemispheres

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limbic lobe

located in the center of the brain beneath the other four cerebral lobes, influences unconcious instinctive behavior

39

lumbar puncture

removal of cerebrospinal fluid for diagnostic purposes by insertion of a needle between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae

40

medulla oblongata

part of the brainstem, contains the nuclei for vital functions

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membrane excitability

ability of nerves to carry impulses by creating electric charges

42

memory

process by which we store information we have learned

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meninges

any of the three linings enclosing the brain and the spinal cord

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menigitis

inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord

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motor neuron (efferent)

carries messages from brain to spinal cord to muscles and glands

46

multiple sclerosis (MS)

chronic inflammatory disease in which the immune cells attack the myelin sheath of a nerve

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myelin sheath (neurilemma)

layers of cell membrane that wrap nerve fibers, providing electrical insulation and increasing the velocity of impulse transmission

48

neuroglia

network of cells that insulate, support, and protect the nerves of the central nervous system

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neuron

nerve cell, including its processes

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nystagmus

rapid involuntary movement of the eyeball

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occipital lobe

part of the cerebrum that housesthe visual area

52

paraplegia

paralysis of the lower extremities caused by severe injury to the spinal cord in the thoracic or lumbar region, resulting in the loss of sensory or motor control below the area of injury

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parietal lobe

division of the cerebrum lies beneath the parietal bone

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Parkinson's Disease

marked by tremors may be due to decrease of neurotransmitter dopamine

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peripheral nervous system

made up of 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves

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pia mater

innermost vascular covering of brain and spinal cord

57

poliomyelitis

disease of nerve pathways of the spinal cord, rarely seen because of polio vaccines

58

pons

part of the brainstem

59

quadriplegia

follows severe trauma to the spinal cord below the C1-C4 vertebrae in which there is loss of movement of all four extremities with the accompanying loss of bowl, bladder, and sexual function

60

sensory neuron (afferent)

emerge from the skin or sense organs and carry messages or impulse toward the spinal cord and brain

61

spastic quadriplegia

spastic paralysis of all four limbs

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spinal cord

part of the central nervous system within the spinal column

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sulci

fissures or grooves separating cerebral convolutions

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synapse

space between adjacent neurons through which an impulse is transmitted

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synaptic cleft

space between the axon of one neuron and the dendrite of another

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temporal lobe

part of the cerebral hemisphere associated with the perception and interpretation of sound

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thalamus

part of the diencephalon, relays sensory stimuli to the cerebral cortex

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third ventricle

a cavity within the brain filled with cerebrospinal fluid behind and below the lateral ventricle

69

West Nile VIrus

a misquito born virus