Chapter 8(a) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8(a) Deck (37):
1

Crime

A violation of a statute for which the government imposes a punishment.

2

Penal Code

A collection of criminal statutes.

3

Regulatory Statutes

Statutes such as environmental laws, securities laws, and antitrust laws that provide for criminal violations and penalties.

4

Felony

The most serious type of crime; inherently evil crime. Most crimes against person and some business-related crimes are felonies.

5

Misdemeanor

A less serious crime; not inherently evil but prohibited by society. Many crimes against property are misdemeanors.

6

Violation

A crime that is neither a felony nor a misdemeanor that is usually punishable by a fine.

7

Actus Reus

"Guilty Act" - the actual performance of a criminal act.

8

Mens Rea

"Evil Intent" - the possession of the requisite state of mind to commit a prohibited act.

9

Non-Intent Crime

A crime that imposes criminal liability without a finding of mens rea (intent).

10

Arrest Warrant

A document for a person's detainment, based upon a showing of probable cause that the person committed the crime.

11

Indictment

The charge of having committed a crime (usually a felony), based on the judgment of a grand jury.

12

Information

The charge of having committed a crime (usually a misdemeanor), based on the judgment of a judge (magistrate).

13

Arraignment

A hearing during which the accused is brought before a court and is (1) informed of the charges against him or her and (2) asked to enter a plea.

14

Plea Bargain

An agreement in which the accused admits to a lesser crime than charged. In return, the government agrees to impose a lesser sentence than might have been obtained had the case gone to trial.

15

Hung Jury

A jury that cannot come to a unanimous decision about the defendant's guilt. In the case of a hung jury, the government may choose to retry the case.

16

Robbery

The taking of personal property from another person by the use of fear or force.

17

Burgalry

The taking of personal property from another's home, office, or commercial or other type of building.

18

Larceny

The taking of another's personal property other than from his or her person or building.

19

Receiving Stolen Property

To (1) knowingly receive stolen property and (2) intend to deprive the rightful owner of that property.

20

Arson

The willful or malicious burning of a building.

21

Forgery

The fraudulent making or alteration of a written document that affects the legal liability of another person.

22

Embezzlement

The fraudulent conversion of property by a person to whom that property was entrusted.

23

Bribery

A crime in which one person gives another person money, property, favors, or anything else of value for a favor in return. A bribe is often referred to as a payoff or kickback.

24

Extortion

A threat to expose something about another person unless that other person gives money or property. Often referred to as blackmail.

25

Criminal Fraud

A crime that involves obtaining title to property through deception or trickery. Also known as false pretense or deceit

26

Money Laundering Control Act

A federal statute that makes it a crime to (1) knowingly engage in a money transaction through a financial institution involving property from an unlawful activity worth more than $10,000 and (2) knowingly engage in a financial transaction involving the proceeds of an unlawful activity.

27

Criminal Conspiracy

A crime in which two or more persons enter into an agreement to commit a crime and an overt act is taken to further the crime.

28

Corporate Criminal Liability

Criminal liability of corporations for actions of their officers, employees, or agents.

29

Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Act (RICO)

A federal act that provides for both criminal and civil penalties for racketeering.

30

Unreasonable Search and Seizure

Any search and seizure by the government that violates the Fourth Amendment.

31

Search Warrant

A warrant issued by a court that authorizes the police to search a designated place for specified contraband, articles, items, or documents. A search warrant must be based on probably cause.

32

Exclusionary Rule

A rule that says evidence obtained from an unreasonable search and seizure can generally be prohibited from introduction at a trial or an administrative proceeding against the person searched.

33

Self-Incrimination

A person being a witness against himself or herself. The Fifth Amendment prevents self-incrimination in any criminal case.

34

Miranda Rights

Rights that a suspect must be informed of before being interrogated, so that the suspect will not unwittingly give up his or her Fifth Amendment Right.

35

Attorney-Client Privilege

A rule that says a client can tell his or her lawyer anything about the case without fear that the attorney will be called as a witness against the client.

36

Immunity from Prosectution

The government's agreement not to use against a person granted immunity any evidence given by that person.

37

Double Jeopardy Clause

A clause of the Fifth Amendment that protects person from being tried twice for the same crime.